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Screening for Colorectal Cancer in Older Patients (PLCO Screening Trial)

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01696981
First Posted: October 2, 2012
Last Update Posted: July 11, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
  Purpose
This clinical trial studies whether screening methods used to diagnose cancer of the prostate, lung, colon, rectum, or ovaries can reduce deaths from these cancers. Screening tests may help doctors find cancer cells early and plan better treatment for colorectal cancer.

Condition Intervention
Colon Carcinoma Rectal Carcinoma Other: Screening Questionnaire Administration Procedure: Sigmoidoscopy

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Screening
Official Title: Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Cancer Institute (NCI):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Colorectal Cancer Deaths [ Time Frame: Events through 13 years of follow-up or through December 31, 2009; median follow-up 12.1 years. ]
    Colorectal cancer deaths confirmed in participants by a death review committee if available, otherwise by death certificate.

  • Colorectal Cancer Death Rates [ Time Frame: Events through 13 years of follow-up or through December 31, 2009; median follow-up 12.1 years. ]
    Colorectal cancer deaths confirmed in participants by a death review committee if available, otherwise by death certificate. Rate is the number of deaths divided by person years of follow-up in the study.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Deaths From All Causes [ Time Frame: Events through 13 years of follow-up or through December 31, 2009; median follow-up 12.1 years. ]
    Deaths from all causes were compared between the colorectal cancer screening arm and the usual care arm.

  • Death Rates From All Causes [ Time Frame: Events through 13 years of follow-up or through December 31, 2009; median follow-up 12.1 years. ]
    Deaths from all causes were compared between the colorectal cancer screening arm and the usual care arm. Rate is the number of deaths divided by person years of follow-up in the study.

  • Colorectal Cancer Incidence [ Time Frame: Events through 13 years of follow-up or through December 31, 2009; median follow-up 12.1 years. ]
    Colorectal cancer diagnoses confirmed by medical record abstraction.

  • Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates [ Time Frame: Events through 13 years of follow-up or through December 31, 2009; median follow-up 12.1 years. ]
    Colorectal cancer diagnoses confirmed by medical record abstraction. Incidence rate (cumulative) defined as colorectal cancer diagnoses divided by person years at risk for colorectal cancer.

  • Complications of Diagnostic Evaluation Following a Positive Screening Test [ Time Frame: One year from screening examination ]
    Number of participants who experienced complications during diagnostic work-up of a positive colorectal examination.

  • T0 (Baseline) FSG Screening Results [ Time Frame: T0 (at study entry) ]
    Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSG) result

  • T3/T5 FSG Screening Result [ Time Frame: T3 (three years after entry) or T5 (five years after entry) ]
    Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSG) result


Enrollment: 154900
Actual Study Start Date: November 16, 1993
Primary Completion Date: May 21, 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Colorectal Screening
Participants undergo a colorectal examination with a flexible sigmoidoscope at baseline and year 5. Participants complete a DQX at baseline and DHQ at year 3. An ADU (previously referred to as the PSH questionnaire) is mailed to each participant annually for 13 years to identify all prevalent and incident colorectal cancers as all deaths that occur among both screened and control subjects during the trial.
Other: Screening Questionnaire Administration
Undergo questionnaire assessments
Procedure: Sigmoidoscopy
Undergo a flexible sigmoidoscopy
Other Name: Proctosigmoidoscopy
No Intervention: Control
Participants receive standard medical care. Participants complete a DHQ at baseline.

Detailed Description:

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To determine whether screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy (60-cm sigmoidoscope) can reduce mortality from colorectal cancer in women and men aged 55-74 at study entry.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To assess screening variables, other than mortality, for each of the interventions including sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value.

II. To assess the incidence, stage, and survival of cancer cases. III. To investigate the mortality predictive value of biologic and/or prognostic characterizations of tumor tissue as intermediate endpoints.

IV. To conduct biomolecular and genetic research into factors associated with cancer carcinogenesis and promotion, as well as the early detection of these factors.

OUTLINE: Participants in the overall PLCO study are stratified by screening center, gender, and age (55-59 vs 60-64 vs 65-69 vs 70-74). Participants are randomized to 1 of 2 arms (control vs screening).

ARM I (Control): Participants receive standard medical care. Participants complete a Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) at baseline.

ARM II (Colorectal Screening): Participants undergo a colorectal examination with a flexible sigmoidoscope at baseline and year 5. A scheduling and tracking procedure is implemented to ensure regular attendance at repeat screens for participants screened negative or for those who are designated suspicious or positive at screening but for whom subsequent diagnostic procedures do not reveal colorectal cancer (follow-up diagnostic procedures are through their own medical care environment). Participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer via a screening test are referred for treatment in accordance with current accepted practice for appropriate stage of disease, patient age, and medical condition; a procedure is provided for contact with qualified medical personnel to insure appropriate therapy.

Participants complete a Dietary Questionnaire (DQX) at baseline and DHQ at year 3. An Annual Study Update (ADU) (previously referred to as the Periodic Survey of Health [PSH] questionnaire) is mailed to each participant annually for 13 years to identify all prevalent and incident colorectal cancers as all deaths that occur among both screened and control subjects during the trial.

After completion of screening, participants are followed up for at least 13 years.

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   55 Years to 74 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Men and women who at the time of randomization are less than 55 or greater than or equal to 75 years of age
  • Individuals undergoing treatment for cancer at this time, excluding basal-cell and squamous-cell skin cancer
  • Individuals with known prior cancer of the colon, rectum, lung, prostate

    • This includes primary or metastatic PLCO cancers
  • Individuals with previous surgical removal of the entire colon, one lung, or the entire prostate (men only)

    • Until October 1996, women with previous surgical removal of both ovaries were excluded from the trial. In order to increase the enrollment of women into the trial, beginning in October 1996, these women were no longer excluded for this reason.
  • Individuals who are participating in another cancer screening or cancer primary prevention trial
  • Males who have taken Proscar/Propecia/finasteride in the past 6 months

    • NOTE: Individuals who are already enrolled in the trial when their physician prescribes finasteride are not prevented from taking this medication. As a result, these participants will continue to be screened and followed just as those participants who are not on finasteride.
    • NOTE: Men who are taking Tamoxifen are not excluded from any part of the PLCO Screening Trial.
    • Prior to April 1, 1999 women were excluded from the trial if they were currently taking or had taken Tamoxifen or Evista\Raloxifene in the past 6 months. As of April 1999 based on a decision from the PLCO Ovary Subcommittee, women who have or are currently taking Tamoxifen or Evista\Raloxifene are not excluded from participation.
  • Individuals who are unwilling or unable to sign the informed consent form
  • Males who have had more than one PSA blood test in the past three years
  • Individuals who have had a colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or barium enema in the past three years
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01696981


Locations
United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Christine Berg National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: National Cancer Institute (NCI)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01696981     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NCI-2012-01757
NCI-2012-01757 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
PLCO-1
CDR0000078532
NCI-P93-0050
PLCO-Colorectal ( Other Identifier: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center )
First Submitted: September 28, 2012
First Posted: October 2, 2012
Results First Submitted: August 30, 2013
Results First Posted: July 21, 2014
Last Update Posted: July 11, 2017
Last Verified: June 2017

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Carcinoma
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms