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Effects of Lipids on Gastric Emptying, Satiety Hormones, and Appetite in Severe Overweight

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jan Lysgaard Madsen, Hvidovre University Hospital Identifier:
First received: September 5, 2012
Last updated: February 18, 2016
Last verified: February 2016
In lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to food components may be reduced. In this study, the investigators compare the effects of the FFA oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite sensation, and subsequent energy intake in lean and severely obese subjects.

Effects of Lipids on Gastric Emptying
Effects of Lipids on Satiety Hormones
Effects of Lipids on Appetite

Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Observational Model: Case Control
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Effects of Lipids on Gastric Emptying, Satiety Hormones, and Appetite in Severe Overweight

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Hvidovre University Hospital:

Biospecimen Retention:   Samples Without DNA

Enrollment: 20
Study Start Date: January 2012
Study Completion Date: January 2015
Primary Completion Date: December 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Detailed Description:

Nutritional lipid within the lumen of small intestine causes a range of physiological responses that suppress appetite and reduce energy intake. Thus, intestinal fat promotes the release of gastrointestinal hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide-YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that modulate gastrointestinal motility and are important for appetite regulation and food consumption.

The effect of ingested fat on gut hormone secretion is highly dependent on the lipolysis of triglycerides (TGs) into free fatty acids (FFAs). It has been demonstrated that adding a lipase inhibitor (tetrahydrolipstatin) to a pure fat meal accelerates gastric emptying and reduces CCK release. Furthermore, administration of tetrahydrolipstatin with an intraduodenal infusion of TG attenuates gastric relaxation and antro-pyloro-duodenal motility and reduces the release of CCK, PYY, and GLP-1 compared to TG alone. Finally, intragastric administration of FFA delays gastric emptying and augments the release of CCK and PYY compared to an isocaloric administration of TG. Hence, the presence of FFAs more than TGs within the small intestine seem to play a pivotal role in the regulation of appetite and energy intake.

Whereas acute intake of FFA represents a potent stimulus for suppression of appetite and energy intake, epidemiological evidence relates long-term high dietary fat intake with obesity and it is known that obese individuals prefer food with high fat content. The mechanisms behind this paradox remain unclear. However, sustained high fat-diet may change gastromotor responses and gut hormonal release to a dietary load of lipids. Moreover intraduodenal sensitivity to FFA (oleic acid) was recently reported to be reduced in obese subjects. The reduced appetite and energy intake after FFAs compared to TGs may, therefore, not apply to obese subjects.

The aims of this study are to evaluate gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion, appetite sensation, and energy intake after isocaloric gastric administration of FFA (oleic acid) and TG (olive oil) in lean and severely obese subjects.


Ages Eligible for Study:   25 Years to 65 Years   (Adult)
Genders Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
10 lean subjects and 10 severely obese subjects

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Lean subjects: BMI 20-25
  • Severely obese subjects: BMI > 50

Exclusion Criteria:

-Gastrointestinal symptoms

  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01681459

Hvidovre Hospital
Hvidovre, Denmark, DK-2650
Sponsors and Collaborators
Hvidovre University Hospital
  More Information

Responsible Party: Jan Lysgaard Madsen, Chief Physician, MD, DMSci, Hvidovre University Hospital Identifier: NCT01681459     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: H-4-2011-060 
Study First Received: September 5, 2012
Last Updated: February 18, 2016
Health Authority: Denmark: The Regional Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics

Keywords provided by Hvidovre University Hospital:
Free fatty acid
Gastric emptying
Satiety hormones
Severe obesity

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Body Weight
Signs and Symptoms
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs processed this record on October 27, 2016