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Fluoride Varnish For Childsmile Nursery School Attenders (PT@3)

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
NHS Scotland
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Lorna Macpherson, University of Glasgow Identifier:
First received: August 24, 2012
Last updated: May 3, 2017
Last verified: May 2017

The study will compare the effectiveness of Duraphat® fluoride varnish in preventing any further dental decay among 3-4 year old children in nursery schools.

It is important to ascertain the additional preventive value that fluoride varnish may provide when applied in conjunction with other preventive measures which form part of a national dental health improvement programme targeting children at risk from dental decay. 1600 children will be recruited into the study for 2 years.

Condition Intervention Phase
Dental Caries
Drug: Duraphat® Fluoride Varnish
Behavioral: treatment as usual
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Comparison Of The Caries-Protective Effect Of Fluoride Varnish (Duraphat®) With Treatment As Usual In Nursery School Attendees Receiving Preventive Oral Health Support Through The Childsmile Oral Health Improvement Programme: An RCT

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Lorna Macpherson, University of Glasgow:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • d3mft ( a standard measure of dental health (number of teeth where decay which has penetrated the tooth enamel, plus the number of missing or filled teeth) [ Time Frame: 24 months ]
    d3mft is a standard measure of dental health (number of teeth where decay which has penetrated the tooth enamel, plus the number of missing or filled teeth).

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • d3mfs [ Time Frame: 24 months ]
    a standard measure of dental health, comprising the number of tooth surfaces where decay which has penetrated the tooth enamel, plus the number of missing or filled teeth

Other Outcome Measures:
  • child oral quality of life [ Time Frame: 24 months ]
    quality of life using a disease specific questionnaire designed by the University College London. Cost effectiveness will be expressed as cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The economic analysis will estimate the mean costs and QALYs, with standard deviations or standard errors or as mean differences with 95% confidence intervals, over two years in the first instance.

Estimated Enrollment: 1610
Study Start Date: October 2012
Estimated Study Completion Date: August 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date: May 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: treatment as usual
any treatment from the family dentist, plus the preventive intervention programme offered to nursery school children, including daily supervised toothbrushing
Behavioral: treatment as usual
includes supervised toothbrushing, distribution of toothbrushes and toothpaste and oral health advice given at nursery school.
Experimental: Duraphat® Fluoride Varnish
treatment as usual (ie any treatment from the family dentist, plus the preventive intervention programme offered to nursery school children, including daily supervised toothbrushing) plus up to 4 six-monthly applications of Duraphat Fluoride Varnish in the nursery school setting.
Drug: Duraphat® Fluoride Varnish
0.25 ml per application will be painted on tooth surfaces by a Childsmile trained Extended Duties Dental Nurse, currently registered with the UK General Dental Council
Other Name: Duraphat® Fluoride Varnish (Colgate-Palmolive).

Detailed Description:

The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Duraphat® fluoride varnish plus treatment as usual (TAU) with TAU only in preventing any further dental decay.

Thus the study is a clinical trial of treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU plus fluoride varnish in the nursery school setting. TAU is the core Childsmile Nursery intervention (supervised daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, free dental packs of fluoride toothpaste, toothbrushes and advice).

Children will be screened by asking parents whether or not the child has previously been hospitalised with asthma or diagnosed with any allergies. Provided that a child has no contraindications to fluoride varnish then the child can proceed to study inclusion. On the day of the planned application, the dental nurse will carry out a risk assessment to reduce the possibility of children with oral/facial infections being included. After excluding non-eligible children, a baseline dental examination will take place, followed by randomisation into treatment as usual or treatment as usual plus fluoride varnish. This second group will receive up to four fluoride varnish applications at 6 month intervals. After two years, all study children will be offered a final dental examination.


Ages Eligible for Study:   36 Months to 50 Months   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Children attending nurseries which cover significant numbers of children whose home postcode is within the most deprived quintile of postcodes as measured by the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) (Scottish Government 2011).
  • Children in the first year of nursery school (known as the 'ante pre school year'). On average the children will be three years old.
  • Every eligible child in participating nurseries will be invited to join the study, irrespective of the SIMD ranking of their own postcode.
  • Children with or without pre-existing cavities, as the cavity can be treated through the usual primary care dental service (i.e. as part of 'treatment as usual').

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Children with contraindications for the Duraphat® varnish i.e. hypersensitivity to colophony and/or any other constituents, ulcerative gingivitis, stomatitis, bronchial asthma, history of allergic episodes requiring hospital admission (e.g. asthma).
  • Receipt of fluoride supplements due to a small risk of fluorosis.
  • Abnormalities of the skin around the mouth, lips (e.g. cold sores) and soft tissue lesions.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01674933

United Kingdom
NHS Lothian
Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde
Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
NHS Fife
Kirkcaldy, Scotland, United Kingdom
NHS Tayside
Perth, Scotland, United Kingdom
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Glasgow
NHS Scotland
Principal Investigator: Lorna MD Macpherson University of Glasgow
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Lorna Macpherson, Professor, Glasgow Dental School, University of Glasgow Identifier: NCT01674933     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: GC12CO201
Study First Received: August 24, 2012
Last Updated: May 3, 2017

Keywords provided by Lorna Macpherson, University of Glasgow:

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Dental Caries
Tooth Demineralization
Tooth Diseases
Stomatognathic Diseases
Fluorides, Topical
Sodium fluoride topical preparation
Sodium Fluoride
Cariostatic Agents
Protective Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anti-Infective Agents, Local
Anti-Infective Agents processed this record on May 25, 2017