Yale Pink and Blue Kids: Effects of Exposure During Pregnancy to Nicotine or Antidepressants in 4-8 Year Old Children (PABKids)
The purpose of this project is to conduct a follow-up study with women that had participated in the Yale Pink and Blue Study of depression in pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Yale Pink and Blue Kids Study is a follow-up study with the mothers and also with the children they were pregnant with in Yale Pink and Blue. These children are now between the ages of 4 and 8 years old, which is a perfect time to look at developmental outcomes in children. This study will look at children with exposure to nicotine or antidepressants during pregnancy, as well as children who were not exposed. The investigators hypothesis is that children who were exposed to either nicotine or antidepressants in pregnancy will have poorer developmental outcomes than children who were not exposed. The investigators are also interested in determining whether nicotine exposure or antidepressant exposure results in poorer outcomes.
The investigators specific aims are:
- To determine whether pre-school and school aged offspring exposed to maternal cigarette smoking or antidepressants during pregnancy are more likely to have social-emotional problems compared to children who were not exposed to cigarettes or antidepressants during pregnancy.
- To determine whether pre-school and school aged children who were exposed to prenatal maternal cigarette smoking or antidepressants during pregnancy display cognitive impairments as compared to children who were not exposed to either prenatal maternal cigarette smoking or antidepressants.
- To determine if pre-school and school aged children who were exposed to maternal prenatal cigarette smoking or antidepressants display impaired motor development as compared to children who were not exposed to maternal cigarette smoking or antidepressants in pregnancy.
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Case Control|
|Official Title:||Yale Pink and Blue Kids: Effects of in Utero Exposure to Nicotine and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in 4-8 Year Old Children|
- Externalizing and internalizing behavior [ Time Frame: 1 year ]The Revised Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-2) is one of the most widely-used measures for evaluating maladaptive behavioral and emotional problems in children between the ages of 2 and 18. It assesses internalizing (i.e., anxious, depressive, and overcontrolled) and externalizing (i.e., aggressive, hyperactive, noncompliant, and undercontrolled) behaviors. In addition to the CBCL-2, we will use direct observation of a 2-minute mother-child interaction session to measure externalizing and internalizing symptoms, as parent report on the CBCL-2 may be biased by maternal psychopathology.
- Cognitive Impairment [ Time Frame: 1 year ]Cognitive impairment is measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT-2), which measures both verbal and nonverbal intelligence through questions , riddles, and pictures. A computer test, CogState, will also assess cognitive functioning, specifically executive functioning through card-related tasks that will ask a child to respond in different ways.
- Fine & Gross Motor Development [ Time Frame: 1 Year ]Fine and Gross Motor Skills will be measured using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) (10), the most widely administered test of fine and gross motor skills in children ages 4 to 21. Administration time is approximately 60 minutes. Subtests include: Fine Motor Precision, Fine Motor Integration, Manual Dexterity, and Bilateral Coordination.
Biospecimen Retention: Samples With DNA
|Study Start Date:||October 2011|
|Study Completion Date:||July 2013|
|Primary Completion Date:||July 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Children exposed to SSRIs in utero
This group are comprised of children whose mothers used antidepressants during pregnancy and who were therefore exposed to antidepressants in utero.
Children exposed to nicotine in utero
This group is comprised of children whose mothers smoked cigarettes during pregnancy and who were therefore exposed to nicotine in utero.
Children exposed to neither nicotine nor SSRIs
This group is comprised of children who were exposed to neither nicotine nor SSRIs in utero.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01640600
|United States, Connecticut|
|Yale Psychiatry: The PMS, Perinatal, and Postpartum Research Program|
|New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06510-2600|
|Principal Investigator:||Megan V Smith, DrPH||Yale University|