Primary Outcome Measures:
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- Clinical Examination [ Time Frame: 30 min ]
The cardiologist performs a noninvasive assessment of the patient's vascular function, which includes a brief physical examination, blood pressure measurement, pulse, and oxygen level.
- Characterize the long term effects of prolonged flight time and SHS on reproductive health [ Time Frame: 10 minutes ]
Flight attendants fill out the electronic Exposure Questionnaire prior to their appointments. Part of the Questionnaire is a section on reproductive health. The answers to these survey questions in addition to information gathered and saved in APeX during the clinic visit are used for analysis on reproductive health of flight attendants.
- Characterize the biomarkers of SHS exposure [ Time Frame: 10 minutes ]
A 45 mL blood specimen is drawn from interested patients to be stored in the research lab as well as analyzed in a UCSF laboratory. Results of the blood analysis performed in the research labs, such as secondhand smoke biomarkers and advanced lipid biomarkers, will not be shared with the subject.
There is an optional blood draw blood portion to the research study. A sample is collected from the interested flight attendant. The majority of the sample is processed and stored in the FAMRI biorepository for future research purposes to identify biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and secondhand smoke. The remainder of the sample is analyzed for the flight attendant. A lipid profile is sent to the flight attendant participant.
The main hypothesis of this study is that exposure to the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the confined workspace of commercial aircraft prior to the ban of cigarette smoking is responsible for long-term damage on the health of nonsmoking flight attendants. We will compare the data collected from our pre-ban flight attendant participants to age-matched, nonsmoking controls from the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) database. The results of our study should permit us to determine if SHS exposure is the cause of long-term increased cardiovascular morbidity and risk, as well as increased susceptibility to respiratory illnesses.