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Immunosuppression Withdrawal for Stable Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients (iWITH)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01638559
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 11, 2012
Results First Posted : June 8, 2017
Last Update Posted : October 7, 2019
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Immune Tolerance Network (ITN)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Brief Summary:
The primary objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of immunosuppression withdrawal (ISW) in pediatric liver transplant (tx) recipients.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Liver Transplant Recipients Liver Transplantation Immunosuppression Drug: Immunosuppression withdrawal Phase 2

Detailed Description:

Anti-rejection medicines, also known as immunosuppressive drugs, are prescribed to organ transplant recipients to prevent rejection of the new organ. Long-term use of these medicines places transplant recipients at higher risk of serious infections and certain types of cancer.

This study seeks to:

  • Find out if it is safe to slowly reduce and then completely stop the immunosuppression taken by children who have received liver transplants. This process is called 'immunosuppression withdrawal'or ISW.
  • Find blood or liver biopsy tests that can help transplant doctors in the future to predict if it is safe to decrease or stop immunosuppression drugs in children who have had a liver transplant.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 161 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Immunosuppression Withdrawal for Stable Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients
Actual Study Start Date : August 14, 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 31, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : June 11, 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Immunosuppression withdrawal
Gradual withdrawal of immunosuppressive treatment withdrawal as per protocol.
Drug: Immunosuppression withdrawal
Participants will undergo gradual ISW in no less than 36 weeks and no more than 52 weeks with frequent monitoring of liver tests. All participants will be followed for 48 months ensuring a minimum of 36 months of follow-up after successful ISW.
Other Name: ISW




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Operationally Tolerant Participants [ Time Frame: 12 Months after complete immunosuppression withdrawal ]
    Number of participants that are operationally tolerant, defined as those who successfully withdraw from immunosuppression and maintain normal allograft status as assessed by liver biopsy and liver tests 12 months after complete immunosuppression withdrawal.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants With Clinical Complications Usually Attributed to Immunosuppression [ Time Frame: Time from immunosuppression withdrawal through a minimum of 36 months and a maximum of 48 months of follow-up ]
    This composite endpoint is comprised of clinical complications related to immunosuppression withdrawal and is defined as the occurrence of any of the following: death or graft loss, histologic evidence of refractory acute rejection or biopsy confirmed chronic rejection (CR).

  2. Time to Increased Immunosuppression or Re-Initiation of Immunosuppression [ Time Frame: Time from immunosuppression withdrawal through a minimum of 36 months and maximum of 48 months of follow-up ]
    The median time (in days) from start of withdrawal from immunosuppression drugs to increasing or re-starting immunosuppression.

  3. Time to Resolution of Rejection [ Time Frame: Time from immunosuppression withdrawal through a minimum of 36 months and maximum of 48 months of follow-up ]
    The median time (in weeks) from biopsy proven rejection to resolution of rejection defined as both liver function tests Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) returning to ≤ 1.5 the baseline values.

  4. Number and Severity of Biopsies Read as Histologic Acute Rejection [ Time Frame: Time from immunosuppression withdrawal through a minimum of 36 months and maximum of 48 months of follow-up ]

    Number of biopsies that were diagnosed as histologic acute rejection in participants who initiated immunosuppression withdrawal by severity of rejection episode. Rejection severity (mild, moderate, severe) is based on the Banff global assessment grade according to the central pathology reading of the liver biopsy. Mild severity criteria: rejection infiltrate in a minority of triads that is generally mild and confined within the portal spaces. Moderate rejection criteria: rejection infiltrate expanding most or all of the triads. Severe rejection criteria: rejection infiltrate expanding most or all of the triads with spillover into periportal areas and moderate to severe perivenular inflammation that extends into the hepatic parenchyma and is associated with perivenular hepatocyte necrosis.

    BPAR: biopsy-proven acute rejection.


  5. Clinical Severity of Acute Rejection [ Time Frame: Time from immunosuppression withdrawal through a minimum of 36 months and maximum of 48 months of follow-up ]

    The clinical severity of acute rejection was descriptively analyzed using hierarchical categories, as follows:

    • Dose increase: Increase in IS dose and/or frequency but to a level less than the regimen at study entry, prior to initiating ISW
    • Reinstitution: Returning to the regimen at study entry, prior to ISW
    • Intensification: Increased IS dose compared with the dose at study entry, prior to ISW
    • Conversion: Change to different IS drug
    • Addition: Initiation of a second IS drug;
    • Corticosteroids: Administration of any intravenous or oral corticosteroids
    • Antibody (Ab) treatment: Administration of any rabbit thymoglobulin; usually with corticosteroids

  6. Reason for Discontinuation of Withdrawal [ Time Frame: Time from start of immunosuppression withdrawal through discontinuation of withdrawal, a maximum of 52 weeks ]
    Reasons participants discontinued immunosuppression withdrawal, such as Biopsy Proven Acute Rejection, Chronic Rejection, Clinical Rejection, Death, Pregnancy, etc.). Only the root cause for discontinuation for each subject is presented in these results if multiple events led to discontinuation of immunosuppression withdrawal.

  7. Impact of Immunosuppression Withdrawal (ISW) on Allograft Histology [ Time Frame: Time from screening biopsy to end of study (month 48) biopsy ]

    The impact of ISW on allograft fibrosis using the Ishak scoring system to measure the change in fibrosis from the screening liver biopsy to the end-of-study (month-48) liver biopsy.

    In the Ishak histologic scoring system, the higher the score/stage, the more fibrosis: Scores range from 0 to 6, with 6 representing the most fibrosis: 0=No fibrosis; 1=Fibrous expansion of some portal areas, with or without short fibrous septa; 2=Fibrous expansion of most portal areas, with or without short fibrous septa; 3=Fibrous expansion of most portal areas, with occasional portal to portal bridging; 4=Fibrous expansion of portal areas with marked bridging (portal to portal) as well as portal to central; 5=Marked bridging (portal to portal and/or portal to central) with occasional nodules (incomplete cirrhosis); and 6=Cirrhosis, probable or definite.

    Decrease in score from screening (baseline) indicates improvement


  8. Duration of Operational Tolerance [ Time Frame: Time from immunosuppression withdrawal through a minimum of 36 months and a maximum of 48 months of follow-up ]
    Median participant duration of operational tolerance. Duration of operational tolerance is defined as the number of days that participants are not taking immunosuppression medications.

  9. Change in Immunosuppression Medication (Calcineurin Inhibitor) Dose From Start of Immunosuppression Withdrawal to the Time of Immunosuppression Withdrawal Failure [ Time Frame: Time from starting immunosuppression withdrawal until immunosuppression withdrawal failure, maximum 52 weeks ]
    The mean percent of immunosuppression (IS) dose reduction from baseline to the time of immunosuppression withdrawal failure. Immunosuppression withdrawal failure is defined as any incidence of increasing immunosuppression medications instead of completing withdrawal.

  10. Change in Immunosuppression Medication Dose From Study Initiation of Withdrawal to the End of the Study [ Time Frame: Time from immunosuppression withdrawal through a minimum of 36 months and maximum of 48 months of follow-up ]
    Change of immunosuppression (IS) dose from baseline to end of study for all participants not deemed tolerant by the trial definition either due to discontinuing IS withdrawal or completing withdrawal but not meeting the criteria for tolerance on the primary endpoint biopsy assessment.

  11. Change in Child Health Related Quality of Life Scores Between Tolerant and Non-tolerant Subjects [ Time Frame: Time from immunosuppression withdrawal through a minimum of 36 months and maximum of 48 months of follow-up ]
    Health related quality of life was measured by the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue scale, and the PedsQL 3.0 Transplant module. Change was calculated as the difference between the questionnaire completed at the initiation of withdrawal and at month 36 for the total generic score, the total fatigue score, and total transplant score. This change was calculated separately for tolerant and non-tolerant subjects. Each score ranges from 0-100, with a higher score indicating a better quality of life.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 18 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Subject and/or parent guardian must be able to understand and provide informed consent;
  • Is the recipient of a living or deceased donor liver tx when subject was less than or equal to 6 years of age;
  • Is at least 4 years post-tx at the time of study enrollment;
  • Has normal allograft function defined as Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) < 50 IU/l and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) < 50 IU/l;
  • Has no evidence of acute rejection (AR) or chronic rejection (CR) within the past 2 years, based on medical history;
  • Is stable on IS monotherapy with a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI);
  • For female subjects of childbearing potential, subject must have a negative pregnancy test upon study entry;
  • For female and male subjects with reproductive potential, subject must agree to use FDA approved methods of birth control for the duration of the study;
  • Must be negative for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection within one year of enrollment;
  • Must have screening biopsy that fulfills, based on central pathology reading, the following criteria:

    • Portal inflammation and interface activity: Preferably absent, but minimal to focal mild portal mononuclear inflammation may be present. Interface necro-inflammatory activity is absent or equivocal/minimal and, if present, involves a minority of portal tracts.
    • Centrizonal/peri-venular inflammation: Preferably absent, but minimal to focal mild perivenular mononuclear inflammation may be present. Perivenular necro-inflammatory activity is absent or equivocal/minimal and, if present, involves a minority of terminal hepatic venules.
    • Bile duct changes: No lymphocytic bile duct damage, ductopenia and biliary epithelial senescence changes, unless there is an alternative, non-immunologic explanation (e.g. biliary strictures).
    • Fibrosis: < Ishak Stage 3 (i.e. not more than occasional portal-to-portal bridging). Perivenular fibrosis should be less than "moderate", according to Banff Criteria.
    • Arteries: Negative for obliterative or foam cell arteriopathy.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Have received a liver tx for autoimmune liver disease, including autoimmune hepatitis or primary sclerosing cholangitis;
  • Have received a liver tx for hepatitis B or hepatitis C;
  • Have received a second organ transplant before, simultaneously, or after liver tx;
  • Have a calculated glomerular filtration rate (modified Schwartz formula) of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m^2;
  • Have had a 50 percent (%) dose increase in CNI within 6 months of screening;
  • Have discontinued a second IS agent within 12 months of screening;
  • Have any systemic illness requiring or likely to require chronic or recurrent use of IS;
  • Is pregnant or breastfeeding;
  • Is unwilling or unable to adhere with study requirements and procedures;
  • Have mental illness or history of drug or alcohol abuse that, in the opinion of the investigator, would interfere with the participant's ability to comply with study requirements;
  • Is unwilling or unable to provide consent or comply with the study protocol;
  • Has used investigational drugs within 4 weeks of enrollment;
  • Is receiving treatment for HIV infection;
  • Has received any licensed or investigational live attenuated vaccine(s) within two months of enrollment;
  • Has any medical condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, will interfere with safe participation in the trial.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01638559


Locations
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United States, California
University of California
San Francisco, California, United States, 94143-0780
United States, Colorado
Children's Hospital of Colorado
Aurora, Colorado, United States, 80045
United States, Georgia
Emory University and Children's Hospital of Atlanta
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30322
United States, Illinois
Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60614
United States, Michigan
University of Michigan C. S. Mott Children's Hospital
Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States, 94143
United States, Missouri
St. Louis Children's Hospital - Washington University
Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, 63110
United States, New York
New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital - Columbia University Medical Center
New York, New York, United States, 10032
United States, Ohio
Cincinnati Children's Hospital
Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 45229
United States, Pennsylvania
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15224
United States, Texas
Texas Children's Hospital
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
Canada, Ontario
The Hospital for Sick Children
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G1X8
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Immune Tolerance Network (ITN)
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: S Feng, M.D., Ph.D. University of California, San Francisco
Study Chair: J Bucuvalas, M.D. Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati
Additional Information:
Publications:
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Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01638559    
Other Study ID Numbers: DAIT iWITH
U01AI100807 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
RTB-001 ( Other Identifier: DAIT NIAID )
NIAID DAIT CRMS ID#: 20129 ( Other Identifier: DAIT NIAID )
First Posted: July 11, 2012    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: June 8, 2017
Last Update Posted: October 7, 2019
Last Verified: September 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: The plan is to share data upon completion of the study in ImmPort, a long-term archive of clinical and mechanistic data from DAIT-funded grants and contracts.
Time Frame: The aim is to share data available to the public within 24 months upon completion of the study.
Access Criteria: ImmPort public data access.
URL: https://immport.niaid.nih.gov/

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
liver transplant
allograft function
anti-rejection
immunosuppression withdrawal
tolerance