Clofarabine Followed By Lenalidomide for High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Acute Myeloid Leukemia
- Several types of blood cancer are associated with poor outcomes including high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Many people with MDS, CMML, and AML are not candidates for standard treatments. New types of treatment are needed for these cancers.
- Clofarabine and lenalidomide are anticancer drugs. The first damages cancer cells in the body. The second can alter blood supply to abnormal cells or affect how the immune system attacks these cells. These drugs have been previously tested as treatments for MDS and leukemia. However, they have not been tried as a combination for MDS, CMML, and AML. Researchers want to see if these drugs are safe and effective for these types of cancer.
- To test the safety and effectiveness of clofarabine and lenalidomide for people with high-risk MDS, CMML, and AML.
- Individuals at least 18 years of age who have high-risk MDS, CMML, and AML.
- Participants must not be candidates for standard treatments.
- Participants will be screened with a physical exam and medical history. Blood and bone marrow samples will be collected.
- Participants will have 5 days of treatment with clofarabine. It will be given through a vein during an inpatient hospital stay. If there are no serious side effects after the infusion, participants will continue treatment as outpatients.
- After 28 days, participants will have a bone marrow biopsy to check their response to treatment.
- After the biopsy, participants will start lenalidomide treatment. Half of the participants will take the drug for 28 days (one treatment cycle). The other half will take it for 56 days (two cycles). More blood tests and biopsies will be used to monitor treatment.
- If there are no serious side effects and the disease does not become worse, participants may keep taking lenalidomide at lower doses for up to 12 more cycles.
|Myeldysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Bone Marrow Diseases Neutropenia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)||Drug: Clofarabine Drug: Lenalidomide||Phase 1|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Clofarabine Followed by Lenalidomide for Treatment of High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Acute Myeloid Leukemia|
- Identification of the maximum tolerated dose.
- Overall Survival
- Characterization of response rate and duration
- Feasibility of lenalidomide maintenance therapy
|Study Start Date:||June 5, 2012|
|Study Completion Date:||October 27, 2015|
|Primary Completion Date:||October 27, 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
High risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are hetereogeneous myeloid malignancies that are associated with a poor prognosis. Due to advanced age and medical comorbidities, the majority of MDS, CMML, and AML patients are not candidates for potentially curative standard treatments such as allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) or intensive chemotherapy (ICT). New therapeutic approaches that improve response rates, have lesser toxicity, and extend survival are clearly needed for high risk MDS and AML patients.
Clofarabine is a myelosuppressive, second generation purine nucleoside analogue which has shown meaningful efficacy at variable dosing levels for high risk MDS and AML patients with a favorable toxicity profile compared to intensive chemotherapy. Lenalidomide is an oral structural analogue of thalidomide with a complex mechanism of action including immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, and direct cytotoxic effects which is a well-established treatment for MDS and has shown agent single efficacy at higher doses for AML. Lenalidomide s therapeutic benefit in AML has been the greatest in patients with low presenting total leukocyte and circulating blast counts. We hypothesize that the initial cytoreductive effects of clofarabine may augment the effectiveness of subsequent lenalidomide therapy and create a favorable immunologic milieu for patients eligible for lenalidomide maintenance therapy. This open-label, single institution phase I trial will evaluate a sequential combination of IV clofarabine with oral lenalidomide for the treatment of high risk MDS, CMML, and AML. Subjects will receive a single course of IV clofarabine (5 milligrams per metered square per day times 5) for cytoreduction. This will be followed by oral lenalidomide consolidation with dose escalation from 25 mg daily for 21/28 days for 1 cycle in the first cohort up to 50 mg daily for 28/28 days for 2 cycles in the fourth cohort. In the absence of dose limiting toxicity or disease progression, Subjects will receive lenalidomide maintenance, starting at a dose of 10 mg daily in 28 day cycles, with dose adjustments, for up to 12 cycles.
The overall objective is to determine the safety of sequential therapy with clofarabine and lenalidomide in subjects with high risk MDS, CMML, and AML. The primary study endpoint will be the toxicity profile of this novel treatment combination in each cohort. Secondary endpoints will include characterization of response and duration, overall survival, and the feasibility of maintenance lenalidomide therapy for responding subjects.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01629082
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|
|Principal Investigator:||Minocher M Battiwalla, M.D.||National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)|