Primary Outcome Measures:
- All cause-death [ Time Frame: Within 30 days after surgery or during postoperative hospitalization ]
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- gastrointestinal or hepatobiliary complications requiring intervention [ Time Frame: Within 30 days after surgery or during postoperative hospitalization ]
Patients receiving elective cardiac or thoracic aorta surgery will be monitored for the development of postoperative hyperbilirubinemia. Collection of data will include patient baseline demographic characteristics, laboratory and echocardiographic findings, procedural factors of the surgery, and early postoperative variables. Serial postoperative liver function testings will be done during the hospitalization. Postoperative hyperbilirubinemia is defined as serum bilirubin level of 3mg/dL.