Applying Pharmacogenetics to Warfarin Dosing in Chinese Patients

The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the status has not been verified in more than two years.
Verified October 2013 by Chinese PLA General Hospital.
Recruitment status was:  Recruiting
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Tong Yin, Chinese PLA General Hospital Identifier:
First received: May 30, 2012
Last updated: October 7, 2013
Last verified: October 2013
The purpose of this study is to determine whether pharmacogenetic guided dosing of warfarin is promising for the improvement of efficiency, therapeutic efficacy, and, especially, safety of warfarin therapy than a dosing regimen without the pharmacogenetic information in Chinese patients initiated on warfarin anticoagulation.

Condition Intervention Phase
Atrial Fibrillation
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Pulmonary Embolism
Heart Valve Disease
Other: Genotype-guided warfarin dosing
Other: Non-genotype guided warfarin dosing
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Applying Pharmacogenetics to Warfarin Dosing in Chinese Patients

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Chinese PLA General Hospital:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • A comparison between the pharmacogenetic and standard arms of the per-patient percentage of out-of-range INRs (<1.5, >3). [ Time Frame: 3 months ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Time to the first supratherapeutic INR [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
  • The proportion of time within the therapeutic INR range [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
  • The proportion of patients reaching therapeutic INR on days 5 and 8 [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
  • The total number of INR measurements and number of dose adjustments made [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
  • Proportion of INRs > 4 [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
  • Major bleeding events [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
  • Minor bleeding events [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
  • Thromboembolic complications [ Time Frame: 3 months ]

Estimated Enrollment: 500
Study Start Date: June 2012
Estimated Study Completion Date: June 2015
Estimated Primary Completion Date: June 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Genotype-guided warfarin dosing
A pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm including clinical factors and genotype information (VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2) will be used to determine warfarin doses.
Other: Genotype-guided warfarin dosing
Applying a Pharmacogenetic-guided warfarin dosing algorithm derived from Chinese to determine the daily maintenance dose of warfarin, based on clinical factors (age, sex, body surface area, etc.), and VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 genotypes, to individualize the dosing of warfarin.
Active Comparator: Non-genotype guided warfarin dosing
A fixed warfarin dose of 3 mg/day was given to the patients for at least 3 days. Following doses were adjusted according to the INR measurement.
Other: Non-genotype guided warfarin dosing
A Empiric fixed warfarin dose of 3 mg/day was given to the patients for at least 3 days. Following doses were adjusted according to the INR measurement.

Detailed Description:

Warfarin is the most widely used oral anticoagulation drug for preventing and treating thromboembolic events, but there is greater than 10-fold interindividual variability in the dose required to attain a therapeutic response. In 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration updated the label of warfarin, recommending consideration of pharmacogenetic information which has been confirmed to contribute significantly to the variability in warfarin dose requirements. Thereafter, multiple pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms were constructed to predict warfarin dose by integrating clinical and genetic factors. Taken together, approximately between one-third and one- half of the variability in warfarin dose could be explained by the proposed algorithms. However, the potential benefit of these dosing algorithms in terms of their safety and clinical utility has not been adequately investigated in randomised settings in Chinese patients.

Study objectives:

  1. To apply routine pharmacogenetic (PG)-guided dosing of warfarin in clinical practice in Chinese patients.
  2. To compare the percentage out-of-range (%OOR) International Normalized Ratios (INRs) during the first 3 month of warfarin therapy using PG-guided dosing with historical standard (STD), empiric dosed controls.
  3. To compare the cost effectiveness, number of thromboembolic and bleeding events, time within therapeutic INR range, time to reach stable dose and number of supratherapeutic INR peaks during the first 3 month of warfarin therapy using PG-guided dosing with historical standard (STD), empiric dosed controls.

Study design:

This is a prospective, randomized study of Chinese patients who are to initiate chronic warfarin anticoagulation for specific, qualifying clinical reasons (i.e., atrial fibrillation, Deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, or Prosthetic valve replacement). Qualifying patients will be consented and randomized to an individualized, pharmacogenetic guided warfarin-dosing regimen (PG group) or to standard care (without knowledge of genotype)(STD group). All patients will receive a baseline INR. For patients in PG group, a maintenance dose for each patient will be predicted by the pharmacogenetic algorithm derived previously in Chinese. A maintenance dose of 3 mg/day will designed to each patients in STD group. The starting dose of warfarin that is twice the assigned daily maintenance dose will be prescribed on the first and second days, and then the dose will revert to the assigned maintenance dose.

Study duration:

Each patient will participate for at least 3 months.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients ≥18 years old
  • Patients initiated on warfarin for venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, atrial fibrillation or heart valve replacement that require long- term oral anticoagulation with target INR ranged 1.5-3.0 for at least 3 months
  • Ability to attend scheduled visits
  • Signed informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Non-eligible subject
  • Pregnant,lactating or of child-bearing potential women
  • Patients with severe co-morbidities (e.g., renal insufficiency/creatinine > 2.5 mg/dL,hepatic insufficiency, active malignancy, terminal disease)
  • Known genotype CYP2C9 or VKORC1 at start of the study
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01610141

Institute of geriatric Cardiology, General Hospital of People's Liberation Army
Beijing, China, 100853
Sponsors and Collaborators
Chinese PLA General Hospital
Principal Investigator: Tong Yin, Dr. Institute of Geriatric Cardiology, General Hospital of People's Liberation Army, Beijing China
  More Information

Responsible Party: Tong Yin, Institute of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital Identifier: NCT01610141     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NSFC-30971259 
Study First Received: May 30, 2012
Last Updated: October 7, 2013

Keywords provided by Chinese PLA General Hospital:
warfarin metabolism
atrial fibrillation
deep vein thrombosis
pulmonary embolism
Artificial Heart Valve

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Atrial Fibrillation
Pulmonary Embolism
Venous Thrombosis
Heart Valve Diseases
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
Heart Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Pathologic Processes
Embolism and Thrombosis
Vascular Diseases
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Anticoagulants processed this record on January 24, 2017