Hypernatremia for the Prevention and Treatment of Cerebral Edema in Traumatic Brain Injury
Cerebral edema is seen heterogenous group of neurological disease states that mainly fall under the categories of metabolic, infectious, neoplasia, cerebrovascular, and traumatic brain injury disease states. Regardless of the driving force, cerebral edema is defined as the accumulation of fluid in the brain's intracellular and extracellular spaces. This occurs secondary to alterations in the complex interplay between four distinct fluid compartments within the cranium. In any human cranium; fluid is contained in the blood, the cerebrospinal fluid, interstitial fluid of the brain parenchyma, and the intracellular fluid of the neurons and glia. Fluid movement occurs normally between these compartments and depends on specific concentrations of solutes (such as sodium) and water. In brain-injured states, the normal regulation of this process is disturbed and cerebral edema can develop. Cerebral edema leads to increased intracranial pressure and mortality secondary to brain tissue compression, given the confines of the fixed-volume cranium. Additionally, secondary neuronal dysfunction or death can occur at the cellular level secondary to the disruption of ion gradients that control metabolism and function.
While studies utilizing bolus dosing of hyperosmolar therapy to target signs or symptoms of increased intracranial pressure secondary to cerebral edema are numerous, there is a paucity of studies relating to continuous infusion of hyperosmolar therapy for targeted sustained hypernatremia for the prevention and treatment of cerebral edema. The investigators hypothesize that induced, sustained hypernatremia following traumatic brain injury will decrease the rate of cerebral edema formation and improve patient outcomes.
|Traumatic Brain Injury Subdural Hematoma Cerebral Contusion Head Injury Cerebral Edema||Drug: Induced, sustained hypernatremia using hypertonic saline Drug: Standard of care (hypertonic saline and mannitol; serum sodium)||Phase 1 Phase 2|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||A Randomized, Open Label Clinical Trial of Sustained Hypernatremia for the Prevention and Treatment of Cerebral Edema in Traumatic Brain Injury|
- Primary Efficacy Objective [ Time Frame: 72 hours ; 120 hours ; 30 days ]The primary efficacy objective of this study is to assess whether patients with severe TBI treated with sustained hypernatremia will show a decrease in neuroimaging defined edema compared to patients treated as the current standard of care.
- Primary Safety Objective [ Time Frame: Through 30 days ]The primary safety objective is to assess the safety and tolerability of sustained hypernatremia compared to the goal of avoiding hyponatremia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Safety will be assessed by a review of the incidence of mortality and adverse events, as well as by analysis of relevant laboratory data.
- Short term neurological outcome [ Time Frame: 30 days ]
The secondary outcome measure of this study will be assess whether patients with TBI treated with sustained hypernatremia will benefit patients in terms of short term neurological outcome - defined as need for tracheostomy during principal admission.
Other secondary outcome measures will be need for delayed craniectomy and cumulative dosage of bolus dosing hyperosmolar therapy.
|Study Start Date:||July 2012|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||August 2013|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||July 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: Standard Care
Patients will be managed to maintain a goal serum sodium of > 135 mmol/L , a well recognized value in the management of severe traumatic brain injury.
Drug: Standard of care (hypertonic saline and mannitol; serum sodium)
Bolus dosing of hypertonic saline and mannitol are to be administered at the discretion of the provider to treat elevated intracranial pressure based on practice guidelines. Hyponatremia ( serum sodium < 135 mmol/L) is to be corrected at the discretion of the provider.
Experimental: Induced Hypernatremia
Patients will be treated with induced, sustained hypernatremia for 5 days following injury by using hypertonic saline to target a goal serum sodium of 150-160 mmol/L
Drug: Induced, sustained hypernatremia using hypertonic saline
Patients in the experimental arm will receive hypertonic saline to target a serum sodium goal of 150 - 160 mmol/L. All hypertonic saline will be administered intravenously.
Loading phase: Upon enrollment 23.4 % hypertonic saline (volume 20 cc) will be administered via a central venous catheter. A continuous infusion of 3% hypertonic saline will be administered at a rate of 30 cc per hour and titrated every six hours to target a serum sodium goal of 150-160 mmol/L.
Maintenance phase: Titrate serum sodium to 150-160 mmol/L using continuous 3% hypertonic saline infusion.
Discontinuation phase: After 5 days of completed therapy, begin to wean 3% hypertonic saline rate by 10cc every 6 hours. Discontinue hypertonic saline infusion after infusing at a rate of 20cc an hour for 6 hours.
Bolus dosing of hypertonic saline and mannitol are to be administered at the discretion of the provider to treat elevated intracranial pressure based on practice guidelines
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01605357
|Study Chair:||Brian P Walcott, MD||Massachusetts General Hospital|
|Principal Investigator:||Brian V Nahed, MD||Massachusetts General Hospital|
|Study Director:||Sameer A Sheth, MD PhD||Massachusetts General Hospital|