End-stage renal disease (ESRD) presents a heavy burden on a patient's psychological and social life, as well as overall quality of life (QoL). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in dialysis patients measures the physical, social or emotional well-being that is affected by ESRD and/or its treatment, and has been increasingly used as an outcome measure in interventional studies. Additionally, associations between social support and QoL have been observed, indicating that improved social support could improve HRQoL, morbidity and mortality in ESRD patients. However, it is not clear if hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) have different impacts on HRQoL. Furthermore, comparisons of HRQoL and social support between HD and PD patients in the multiethnic society of Singapore have not been evaluated. As such, the investigators propose to conduct this cross-sectional study in the investigators local multiethnic ESRD patient population to evaluate and compare patient-reported outcomes (HRQoL and social support), economic and clinical laboratory outcomes in HD and PD patients.
All chronic HD and PD patients seen in NUH outpatient renal or PD clinic will be included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Information on patient demographics, medical/medication histories, dialysis vintage, clinical laboratory data and associated medical costs will be obtained from clinic notes, electronic medical records and hospital databases. Patient-reported outcomes will be determined from scores of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form, EuroQol 5 Dimensions, Family Functioning Measure, Oslo-3 Social Support Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and Health Services Utilization questionnaires (for indirect costs), and compared between HD and PD patients.
Results from this study will provide important HRQoL information to assist renal physicians and patients to make treatment decisions. Furthermore, intervention programs could be developed to improve social support based on patients' needs. These could in turn improve patients' HRQoL, morbidity and mortality outcomes with minimal risks involved.