Addressing Attitudes to Improve Use of Protective Headwear in Older Adults (AAIU-PHOA)
|Injury of Unknown Intent Due to Fall From Height Traumatic Brain Injury||Behavioral: Social Marketing for protective headgear|
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Ecologic or Community
Time Perspective: Prospective
|Official Title:||Effect of Social Marketing on Attitudes Towards Protective Headwear in Older Adults to Reduce Traumatic Brain Injury|
|Study Start Date:||May 2012|
|Study Completion Date:||March 2013|
|Primary Completion Date:||March 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Older Adults in a Senior Community
Residents of a Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC) that is a part of The Be Group (previously known as Southern California Presbyterian Homes), with no exclusion other than being able to communicate in English and provide consent to participate.
Behavioral: Social Marketing for protective headgear
Social marketing was done using a CQI manner after each focus group with experts and with seniors using a structured interview approach with an iterative process to develop a progressive method of presenting information about head injuries and their input on a new prevention.
To measure changes in attitudes, the participants were given an attitudes questionnaire (PHAQ), & a demographic & functional status questionnaire. Input into the social marketing content was sought in a structured interview manner, and by using an audience response system with questions projected by power point. At the conclusion of the social marketing, the PHAQ was repeated and sent to participants 2 weeks after the focus group to gage stability of changes in attitudes.
Other Name: SMARTY and commercially available protective Headgear
Design of Social Marketing/Consumer Preferences Trial
a. Development of Protective Headwear Attitudes Questionnaire To develop a questionnaire specific to attitudes about protective headwear, the authors reviewed existing papers that applied the Theory of Planned Behavior to other health behaviors such as the use of canes or walkers and adherence to exercise. Questions were drafted to address attitudes (24), subjective norms (14) and perceived behavioral control (14) about the behavior of using protective headwear. The rationale and specific questions were presented to an expert panel and clinicians (behavioralist, 3 geriatricians, long-term care nurse and a nurse health services researcher) to evaluate the content and face validity of each question, and to rank each as high or low importance within each domain. Item reduction and refinement following the expert panels identified 26 candidate questions. Analysis of the PHAQ as an instrumented was also completed
Social Marketing Approach
- Expert panel Input on social marketing materials Input on the social marketing phase was conducted on two focus groups of 6 clinicians, geriatricians and nurses, and the social marketing tools were updated and improved in a CQI manner after each focus group with experts and with seniors in retirement communities. Please review transcripts on the input from seniors.
Social Marketing Focus groups/Process The social marketing approach was developed and refined using a structured interview approach with each focus group of older adults. A total 6 focus groups were conducted at 4 communities with a total of 36 participants. An iterative process was used to improve the content of the social marketing after each session.
The goal was to develop a progressive method of presenting information about the magnitude of head injuries and the development of a new product that we wanted their input towards the final design. The progression was done with First, a one page flier, Second, a three minute video tape and Finally, a two page article that was patterned after articles that appear in AARP magazine. The flier provided basic information about the risk of TBI and the development of a new product called SMARTY®, which is made of advanced materials so that it is lightweight and can be styled to match the needs of the user and setting. The Video included the discussion of the unrecognized public health issue by one of the authors (SC), photos of the advanced materials and how they work to provide protection, a videotape of the testing of the protective headwear by dropping a crash test dummy and finally the testimonial of the user of a prototype by a colleague who has a seizure disorder. The paper provides more detail and includes a graph of the rapid increase in deaths from TBI in older adults 75 years and over, and a drawing that describes the characteristics of the advanced materials.
- Ability to change attitudes To measure changes in attitudes, the participants were given the PHAQ, as well as the demographic and functional status questionnaire when they arrived for the focus group. Input into the social marketing content was sought in a structured interview manner, and by using an audience response system with questions projected by power point. At the conclusion of the social marketing, the PHAQ was repeated and sent to participants 2 weeks after the focus group to gage stability of changes in attitudes.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01582464
|United States, California|
|Multiple, California, United States, 91203|
|Principal Investigator:||Steven Castle, MD||University of California, Los Angeles|