- MiniBESTest [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ]
Balance will be assessed using a 14-item tool measuring performance of dynamic balance tasks. This test has high interrater and test-retest reliability in PD (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ .92 and intraclass correlation coefficient ≥.88 respectively). Total score for MiniBESTest is the sum of foursubscales, ranging from 0 (worst possible balance) to 28 (best possible balance). Lower scores indicate greater deficits in balance. Two items have right and left assessment in which the lower score is used within the total score (directions specify which to use). For research, we used of both left and right data, thus calculating data based on 32 (vs 28) points.
- Number of Participants With a Fall in the Past 3 Months Using the Falls Questionnaire From the Canadian Longitudinal Study of Aging [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ]
Falls will be assessed using an adapted version of the falls questionnaire from the Canadian Longitudinal Study of Aging focusing on the past 3 months. This questionnaire includes 2 questions to assess if the participants felt during the past year and then it assess if this fall happened within the last 3 months. If a participant answered 'yes' to both questions, then the participant screened positive for this outcome. In the results section, we reported the number of participant who answered 'Yes' to both questions.
- Freezing of Gait Questionnare (FOG_Q) [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ]
Freezing of gait will be assessed using the Freezing of Gait Questionnare (FOG_Q), a 6-item tool measuring walking and freezing episodes. Higher scores indicate greater difficulty with walking and freezing. Six items each scored from 0 to 6 were summed to obtain the total score, ranging from 0 (best possible outcome) to 36 (worst possible outcome).
- The Purdue Pegboard [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ]
The Purdue Pegboard, a test of dexterity and speed in the hands will be assessed over 1 minute. We calculate the number of pins correctly placed on the board in a minute.
- The Montreal Cognitive Assessment [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ]
This tool was designed to screen for mild cognitive impairment. This includes visuospatial tests (clock drawing, trail making, cube copying), confrontation naming, attention (digit span, backwards digit span, "A" test, sentence repetition), tests of verbal fluency, abstraction, short term memory, and orientation. Recently, it has been used widely in PD, and demonstrates excellent sensitivity for subtle cognitive deficits. Alternate versions (7.1 to 7.3, with a randomly-distributed order) will be administered to prevent training effects. Total score for the MoCA is the sum of eight subscales, ranging from 0 (worst possible outcome) to 30 (best possible symptoms)"
- The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ]
The BDI is a self-administered scale of 21 items (scored 0-3) which assesses depression symptoms. The Beck Inventory is one of the most commonly-used scales for depression in PD, and a recent consensus panel of the Movement Disorders Society concluded it was a scale of first choice for assessing depression in PD. Total score for the BDI is the sum of 21 items, ranging from 0 (best possible outcome) to 63 (worst possible symptoms)"
- Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ]
This is a 14-item patient-rated scale which measures cognitive, emotional, and behavioural symptoms of apathy. All items are rated on a 0 to 3 Likert Scale. The original 18-item scale has been shortened by four items, and wording simplified and it was reported to have excellent psychometric properties in PD (internal consistency reliability = 0.76, test-retest 1 week r = 0.90). Total score is ranging from 0 (best possible outcome) to 42 (worst possible symptoms).
- The Krupp Fatigue Severity Scale [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ]
The fatigue severity scale measures impact of fatigue with a 9-item questionnaire, with a 7-point Likert scale for each question It has been validated, and has been used in PD studies. Total score is ranging from 0 (best possible outcome) to 63 (worst possible fatigue).
- The Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire is a Quality of Life(PDQ-39) [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ]
The PDQ-39 is a quality of life index for PD. It consists of a 39-item questionnaire that asks about the impact of PD on a person's motor function, gait, mood, cognition, and activities of daily living. Patients are asked to indicate the frequency of each event by selecting one of 5 options: never/occasionally/sometimes/often/always or cannot do at all. Total score is ranging from 0 (best possible outcome) to 156 (worst possible quality of life).
- Adherence to Treatment [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
Compliance with dance therapy will be conducted by reconfirming the regular assistance to the dance sessions at week 12, to compare how many sessions were attended by the participants. The dance instructors will keep the track of dance classes' assistance.
- Clinical Global Impression of Change [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ]
Completed by both the examiner and the patient, the scale is a single question" Since you have enrolled in the study, how has your Parkinson's disease changed?". It will be scored as very much improved (6), much improved (5), minimally improved (4), no change (3), minimally worse (2), much worse (1), or very much worse(0).
- Exit Questionnaire [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
An exit questionnaire ranking level of enjoyment and overall satisfaction with their dance/exercise program, scored from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree), with open questions about willingness continuing practicing tango.
- Adverse Events [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
Adverse events will be queried week 12 through a semi structured interview querying increase in falls, fatigue, pain, cramps or pain, in addition to open-ended questions regarding other potential adverse events. Events will be rated by the patient and investigator as mild, moderate, or serious. All serious adverse events will be reported to the research ethics board