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Study of Chokeberry to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Former Smokers

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Bradley Bolling, University of Connecticut Identifier:
First received: February 24, 2012
Last updated: March 8, 2016
Last verified: March 2016
The purpose of this project is to determine whether chokeberry polyphenols mitigate cardiovascular disease risk in former smokers.

Condition Intervention
Cardiovascular Disease Oxidative Stress Dietary Supplement: Chokeberry Extract Dietary Supplement: Placebo capsule Dietary Supplement: Chokeberry extract capsule, acute

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: The Effect of Chokeberry Polyphenols on Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease and Antioxidant Defenses in Former Smokers

Further study details as provided by Bradley Bolling, University of Connecticut:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • LDL cholesterol [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks of intervention ]
    Change in LDL cholesterol from baseline

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Plasma area under the curve of chokeberry polyphenols and their metabolites. [ Time Frame: 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours following dose, baseline and 12 weeks ]
  • Resting systolic blood pressure [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks following intervention ]
    Change in resting systolic blood pressure

  • Resting diastolic blood pressure [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks following intervention ]
    Change in resting diastolic blood pressure

  • Urinary F2-isoprostanes [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 weeks following intervention ]
    Change in resting urinary F2-isoprostanes

Enrollment: 56
Study Start Date: February 2012
Study Completion Date: August 2015
Primary Completion Date: August 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Placebo Comparator: Color-matched rice powder pill
Color-matched rice powder pill
Dietary Supplement: Placebo capsule
Color-matched rice powder pill, 2 x 250 mg/day for 12 weeks
Experimental: Chokeberry extract capsule
Chokeberry extract capsule
Dietary Supplement: Chokeberry Extract
Consumption of 2 x 250 mg chokeberry extract capsules daily for 12 weeks.
Dietary Supplement: Chokeberry extract capsule, acute
Chokeberry extract capsule, 2 x 250 mg, one-time dose.

Detailed Description:

More than 31% of Connecticut adults are former smokers, which may contribute to the high CVD risk in this state. Atherosclerosis, a hallmark of CVD, is a progressive life-long process. Chronic cigarette smoking increases atherosclerosis and CVD risk. While smoking cessation may lower CVD risk, former smokers still are at high CVD risk. The mechanisms by which smoking accelerates atherosclerosis formation are not fully understood. This knowledge gap prevents development of informed interventions to reduce CVD risk in former smokers.

Previous work suggests smoking increases oxidative stress and leads to elevated CVD risk. Former smokers also have decreased antioxidants and markers of vascular function in the circulation, suggesting that despite cessation, smoking has a lingering adverse effect on CVD protective mechanisms. Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) is a native Connecticut plant rich in polyphenol antioxidants and is a promising intervention for reducing CVD risk in former smokers. Chokeberries have diverse polyphenols such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid. Chokeberry consumption improves dyslipidemia, inhibits inflammation, and reduces oxidative stress in humans and animals, all of which could contribute to the prevention of CVD in former smokers. Therefore, our central hypothesis is that dietary chokeberry polyphenols reduce CVD risk in former smokers by improving lipid profiles and inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress. Our long-term goal is to define the mechanisms by which polyphenol antioxidants mitigate CVD risk. The overall goal of this project is to conduct a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the cardio-protective effects of dietary chokeberry polyphenols in former smokers.

Our objectives are to determine 1) the effect of chokeberry polyphenols on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels and on gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism; 2) the extent to which chokeberry improves antioxidant and vascular function in former smokers; and 3) the association of bioavailability of chokeberry polyphenols to changes in biomarkers of CVD risk.

Successful completion of this work will result in improved understanding of the role of dietary berry polyphenols to regulate lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. Thus, this study will be an important step to developing dietary recommendations for individuals predisposed to CVD risk, particularly former smokers.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Former smoker (previously smoked ≥3 cigarettes/day for at least 1 year, cessation for at least 6 months
  • Healthy male or female between 18-65 y
  • Serum clinical ranges no more than mildly elevated (serum cholesterol <240 mg/dL) and serum triglyceride (<150 mg/dL)
  • Resting blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg
  • Stable body weight (±5 lb) for last 2 months
  • BMI ranges within normal and overweight (18.5-39 kg/m2)
  • Willing to maintain normal exercise level (<7 h/wk)
  • Willing to avoid exercise 24 h prior to blood sampling
  • Willing to ingest a dietary chokeberry supplement or placebo (500 mg/d) daily for 12 wks.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Previous diagnoses of CVD, diabetes, or arthritis (except for osteo-arthritis)
  • Currently being treated for cancer (i.e., chemotherapy, radiation therapy)
  • Women with prescribed estrogen replacement therapy
  • Practicing slimming diet
  • Practicing vegetarian diet
  • Currently taking vitamin or mineral supplements or plant pills
  • Alcohol consumption exceeding the definition of moderate drinking (2 drinks/day or a total of 12/week for men or 1 drink/day or a total of 7/week for women)
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01541826

United States, Connecticut
Roy E. Jones Building
Storrs, Connecticut, United States, 06269
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Connecticut
Principal Investigator: Bradley W Bolling, PhD University of Connecticut
  More Information

Additional Information:
Responsible Party: Bradley Bolling, Assistant Professor, University of Connecticut Identifier: NCT01541826     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: H11-311
120068 ( Other Identifier: University of Connecticut )
Study First Received: February 24, 2012
Last Updated: March 8, 2016

Keywords provided by Bradley Bolling, University of Connecticut:
LDL cholesterol
oxidative stress

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cardiovascular Diseases processed this record on June 23, 2017