Ketamine Infusion and Hypoventilation

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01535976
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 20, 2012
Results First Posted : April 1, 2014
Last Update Posted : April 1, 2014
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Gildasio De Oliveira, Northwestern University

Brief Summary:

Procedures performed under sedation have the same severity in regards to morbidity and mortality as procedures performed under general anesthesia1. The demand for anesthesia care outside the operating room has increased tremendously and it poses, according to a closed claim analysis, major risks to patients . Both closed claim analysis identified respiratory depression due to oversedation as the main risk to patients undergoing procedures under sedation. The major problem is that hypoventilation is only detected at very late stages in patients receiving supplemental oxygen. Besides the respiratory effects of hypoventilation, hypercapnia can also lead to hypertension, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and seizures.

The incidence of anesthetized patients with obstructive sleep apnea has increased substantially over the last years along with the current national obesity epidemic. These patients are at increased risk of hypoventilation when exposed to anesthetic drugs. The context of the massive increase in procedural sedation and the extremely high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea poses major respiratory risks to patients and it may, in a near future, increase malpractice claims to anesthesiologists. The development of safer anesthesia regimen for sedation are, therefore, needed. The establishment of safer anesthetics regimen for sedation is in direct relationship with the anesthesia patient safety foundation priorities. It addresses peri-anesthetic safety problems for healthy patient's. It can also be broadly applicable and easily implemented into daily clinical care.

Ketamine has an established effect on analgesia but the effects of ketamine on ventilation have not been clearly defined. The lack of validated and sensitive instruments to evaluate the effects of ketamine on ventilation is an important reason for the conflicting results.The investigators have demonstrated that the transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitor is accurate in detecting hypoventilation in patients undergoing deep sedation. Animal data suggest that when added to propofol in a sedation regimen, ketamine decreased hypoventilation when compared to propofol alone. It is unknown if ketamine added to a commonly used sedative agent (propofol) can decrease the incidence and severity of hypoventilation in patients undergoing deep sedation. It is also unknown if the effect of ketamine on ventilation are different in patients with and without obstructive sleep apnea.

The investigators hypothesized that patients receiving ketamine and propofol will develop less intraoperative hypoventilation than patients receiving propofol alone. The investigators also hypothesized that this effect will be even greater in patients with obstructive sleep apnea than patients without obstructive sleep apnea.

Significance: Respiratory depression due to oversedation was identified twice as the major factor responsible for claims related to anesthesia. The high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea combined with more complex procedures done in outpatient settings can increase physical risks to patients and liability cases to anesthesiologists. The main goal of this project is to establish the effect of ketamine in preventing respiratory depression to patients undergoing procedures under sedation. If the investigators confirm the their hypothesis , their findings can be valuable not only to anesthesiologist but also to other specialties ( Emergency medicine, gastroenterologists, cardiologists, radiologists) that frequently performed procedural sedation. The research questions is;does ketamine prevent hypoventilation during deep sedation? The hypotheses is; ketamine will prevent hypoventilation during sedation cases.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Hypoventilation Drug: Placebo Drug: Ketamine Not Applicable

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 54 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: The Effect of Ketamine in The Prevention of Hypoventilation in Patients With and Without a Positive Berlin Questionnaire Undergoing Deep Sedation
Study Start Date : August 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date : May 2013
Actual Study Completion Date : May 2013

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Ketamine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
.9 normal saline infusion
Drug: Placebo

Placebo Comparator: Placebo

.9 normal saline infusion

Active Comparator: Ketamine
Infusion of ketamine
Drug: Ketamine
Ketamine infusion .5mg/kg bolus followed by 1.5 mcg/kg/minute until end of case

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Intraoperative Hypoventilation [ Time Frame: 8 hours ]
    Subjects receiving intraoperative ketamine in addition to propofol will demonstrate less hypoventilation during the surgical procedure.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 64 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • ASA I,II
  • Age 18-64
  • Females undergoing surgical procedures requiring sedation

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnant subjects
  • Breastfeeding
  • Patients or surgeon request

    ---Drop Out:

  • Patient or surgeon request,
  • Conversion to general anesthesia
  • Inability to obtain data from Co2 monitor

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01535976

United States, Illinois
Prentice Womens Hospital
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60611
Sponsors and Collaborators
Northwestern University
Principal Investigator: Gildasio De Oliveira, MD Northwestern University

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Gildasio De Oliveira, Gildasio De Oliveira, M.D. Principal Investigator, Northwestern University Identifier: NCT01535976     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: STU00048723
First Posted: February 20, 2012    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: April 1, 2014
Last Update Posted: April 1, 2014
Last Verified: February 2014

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Respiratory Insufficiency
Respiration Disorders
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory
Signs and Symptoms
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anesthetics, Dissociative
Anesthetics, Intravenous
Anesthetics, General
Central Nervous System Depressants
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Excitatory Amino Acid Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action