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The Effect of Brief Potent Glutamatergic Modulation on Cocaine Dependence

This study has been terminated.
(An analysis demonstrated that running the final participants was unnecessary.)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
New York State Psychiatric Institute Identifier:
First received: December 29, 2011
Last updated: August 7, 2017
Last verified: August 2017
This project will evaluate the effect of a single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine on the time to first cocaine use and abstinence rates in 60 treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals receiving mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) therapy, using a 5 week combined laboratory-inpatient and outpatient double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

Condition Intervention Phase
Cocaine Dependence Drug: Ketamine Drug: Midazolam Phase 1 Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by New York State Psychiatric Institute:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Time to first cocaine use [ Time Frame: Over the four week period following discharge from the inpatient unit at Day 5 ]
    During phase 2, patients will be assessed twice weekly by TLFB and urine toxicology for cocaine use. The day of first use will determine the length of time that transpired from discharge to the first lapse onto cocaine.

  • Abstinence [ Time Frame: Abstinence will be assessed over 4 weeks starting at the last day of week 1 and continuing through the end of study at the last day of week 5 ]
    Abstinence is defined as 2 or greater weeks of no cocaine use, as ascertained by the TLFB and urine toxicology.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Stress and cue reactivity [ Time Frame: This will be assessed over the five week course of the trial; on days 1 and 5, on the last day of week 2, and on the last day of week 5 ]
    Self-assessments as well as endocrine, physiological, and other assessments are used to ascertain stress and cue reactivity as well as craving at the above-mentioned time-points as well as, in some cases, continuously over the five week period of the trial.

  • Mindfulness [ Time Frame: This will be assessed over the five week course of the trial; on days 1 and 5, on the last day of week 2, and on the last day of week 5 ]
    The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire will be administered at various points throughout the study in order to ascertain the effect of the intervention on mindfulness as compared to the control.

Enrollment: 55
Actual Study Start Date: February 2012
Study Completion Date: April 2017
Primary Completion Date: February 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Ketamine
0.5 mg/kg of ketamine IV over 40 minutes
Drug: Ketamine
0.5 mg/kg IV over 40 minutes
Other Name: ketamine 0.5 mg/kg
Active Comparator: midazolam
0.025 mg/kg IV over 40 minutes
Drug: Midazolam
0.025 mg/kg IV over 40 minutes
Other Name: midazolam 0.025 mg/kg

Detailed Description:

he study will begin with an inpatient phase (phase 1) of 5 days, during which abstinence is achieved, followed by a 4 week outpatient phase (phase 2). A single infusion of ketamine or midazolam will occur on day 3 of Phase 1. In addition to measures of mindfulness and impulsivity, stress sensitivity tests are incorporated into the design in order to elucidate mechanisms of action. The study hypotheses are:

  1. ketamine and MBRP will significantly increase the time to first use compared to placebo and MBRP in cocaine-dependent individuals.
  2. ketamine and MBRP is significantly more likely to lead to abstinence from cocaine (no use over one week) as compared to placebo and MBRP.
  3. ketamine and MBRP will significantly reduce subjective, endocrine, and physiological responses to stress (including cue exposure) as compared to placebo and MBRP.
  4. ketamine and MBRP will significantly increase mindfulness, as assessed by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), as compared to placebo and MBRP.

Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years to 60 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Active cocaine dependence with at least 8 days of use or at least 4 binges of large amounts (>$200/occasion) over the past 30 days, and displaying at least one positive utox during screening
  • Physically healthy
  • No adverse reactions to study medications
  • 21-60 years of age
  • Capacity to consent and comply with study procedures, including sufficient proficiency in English
  • Seeking treatment

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Meets DSM IV criteria for current major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, any psychotic illness, including substance induced psychosis, and current substance-induced mood disorder with HAMD score > 12.
  • Physiological dependence on another substance requiring medical management, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, excluding caffeine, nicotine, and cannabis
  • Delirium, Dementia, Amnesia, Cognitive Disorders, or Dissociative disorders
  • Current suicide risk or a history of suicide attempt within the past year
  • Pregnant or interested in becoming pregnant during the study period
  • Heart disease as indicated by history, abnormal ECG, previous cardiac surgery.
  • Unstable physical disorders which might make participation hazardous such as end-stage AIDS, hypertension (>140/90), WBC < 3.5, active hepatitis or other liver disease with elevated transaminase levels (< 2-3 X upper limit of normal will be considered acceptable if PT/PTT is normal), renal failure (creatinine > 2, BUN >40), or untreated diabetes
  • Previous history of ketamine or benzodiazepine misuse or abuse, and a history of an adverse reaction/experience with prior exposure to ketamine or benzodiazepine
  • Recent history of significant violence (past 2 years)
  • First degree relative with a psychotic disorder (bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychosis NOS)
  • BMI > 32, or a history of documented obstructive sleep apnea
  • On psychotropic or other medications whose effect could be disrupted by participation in the study
  • Patients who cannot comply with study procedures during the initial hospitalization phase
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01535937

United States, New York
New York State Psychiatric Institute
New York, New York, United States, 10032
Sponsors and Collaborators
New York State Psychiatric Institute
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Study Chair: Herbert Kleber, M.D. NYSPI
Principal Investigator: Elias Dakwar, MD New York State Psychiatric Institute
  More Information

Responsible Party: New York State Psychiatric Institute Identifier: NCT01535937     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: #6403/7339R
1K23DA031771-01 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
Study First Received: December 29, 2011
Last Updated: August 7, 2017

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cocaine-Related Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anesthetics, Dissociative
Anesthetics, Intravenous
Anesthetics, General
Central Nervous System Depressants
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Excitatory Amino Acid Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Adjuvants, Anesthesia
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Anti-Anxiety Agents
Tranquilizing Agents
Psychotropic Drugs
GABA Modulators
GABA Agents processed this record on August 18, 2017