This study will look at the effects, good and/or bad, of treating primary brain cancers with diet therapy using an energy restricted ketogenic diet (ERKD) that uses food. An energy restricted ketogenic diet is a diet designed to keep blood sugars in the low range of normal while at the same time increasing the blood concentration of metabolic break down products called ketones. This diet is currently used to treat children with uncontrollable seizures. This diet is well tolerated by the children with minimal side effects reported after using the diet for years.
- The main purpose of this study is to find out whether or not the energy restricted ketogenic diet will help patients with primary brain cancer by either decreasing the size of the cancer or by keeping the cancer from growing.
- Another reason for doing this study is to learn about the side effects associated with the energy restricted ketogenic diet in patients with primary brain cancer.
Primary Outcome Measures:
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||July 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Other: Energy restricted Ketogenic Diet (ERKD) (Metabolic Nutritional Therapy)
Adult subjects with newly diagnosed glioblastoma will be referred to the study. Residual tumor size will be determined using MRI imaging. Subjects will be placed on ERKD while they are being treated with radiation therapy and standard of care chemotherapy. After completion of radiation therapy, tumor size will be determined using MRI. If the tumor has decreased in size or remained the same (stable disease), the subjects will be continued on the ERKD for an additional 6 weeks. Total calories consumed by each subject will be targeted to 20 to 25 kcal/kg/day. If the tumor has decreased in size or the size has remained the same then subjects will be continued on the ERKD for as additional 6 weeks and a repeat MRI will be obtained.
Other Name: Ketogenic diet
Summary: The current standard of care for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, includes surgical resection, radiation and chemotherapy. Survival rarely exceeds 18 months. The investigators propose to test the hypothesis that brain tumor cells are unable to utilize ketones as a source of energy when deprived of glucose, due to mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas normal glia and neurons can survive this metabolic stress. A nutritionally adequate but energy restricted, ketogenic diet (ERKD) to deprive brain tumors of energy and resulting in death of glioma cells is promising. ERKD-based therapy to manage brain cancer is both biologically plausible and supported by data in animal models. A multidisciplinary team of oncologists, registered dietitians, and physiologists will implement an ERKD therapy in newly diagnosed GBM subjects. After initial maximal tumor excision, ERKD therapy will be initiated for subjects during a one week inpatient admission to Sparrow Hospital or as a local outpatient and supervised by registered dietitians experienced in implementing this therapy.The ERKD will continue as adjunctive therapy along with radiation therapy and standard of care chemotherapy. The supervised ERKD will continue for an additional 6 weeks after completion of radiation therapy along with the standard of care chemotherapy. The objective of this trial is to determine whether the ERKD decreases tumor size or results in no recurrence in individuals with GBM as measured by serial MRI imaging. Enzymes and signaling pathways that regulate metabolism and cell growth will be assessed in initial and post-ERKD tumors using standard biochemical approaches.