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Decreasing the Use of Unmodified Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in an Indian Hospital

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01526395
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 3, 2012
Last Update Posted : April 4, 2013
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Irving Reti, Johns Hopkins University

Brief Summary:
In developing countries, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is typically delivered without the use of an anesthetic prior to the treatment, known as unmodified ECT. This interventional study aims to decrease the practice of unmodified ECT at Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, U.P. & G.M. & Associated Hospitals (C.S.M) by administering a low dose anesthetic (propofol) prior to ECT delivery. In so doing, the investigators hope to facilitate the transition from unmodified to modified ECT without incurring excessive costs to the center. It is hypothesized that ECT patients will opt for modified treatment, that adverse effects will be minimal, and that costs will not rise prohibitively.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Major Depressive Disorder Bipolar Disorder Schizophrenia Drug: Propofol

Detailed Description:
Patients that are currently receiving unmodified ECT at C.S.M Hospital will be eligible for the first phase of the study in which only data is collected. Three months after study start, patients who are to receive ECT for a psychiatric disorder will be eligible to participate in the intervention (introduction of propofol at a low dose prior to ECT). Data collection will include information such as demographics, ratings scales, seizure length, anxiety level, adverse events, and number of treatments.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 99 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
Official Title: Decreasing the Use of Unmodified ECT in an Indian Hospital
Study Start Date : August 2011
Primary Completion Date : April 2012
Study Completion Date : April 2012

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Propofol
U.S. FDA Resources

Arm Intervention/treatment
No Intervention: Unmodified ECT
Data will be collected on patients receiving ECT in its unmodified form prior to the introduction of low dose propofol sedation.
Active Comparator: Low Dose Propofol
Subjects will be given low dose propofol prior to ECT.
Drug: Propofol
The major intervention proposed in this study is the introduction of low dose IV propofol for sedation prior to ECT treatment at C.S.M Medical University. The investigators will use a dose of 0.25 to 0.50 mg/kg of IV propofol. The maximum dose of 0.50 mg/kg is not sufficient for anesthesia (i.e., to make unconscious), but should provide a light level of sedation and be "amnestic," meaning the patient should have memory loss for the period of time around the ECT procedure itself. The propofol dose will be titrated upwards (from an initial dose of 0.25 mg/kg) with successive treatments in increments of 0.05mg/kg, until it is just sufficient to be lightly sedating. ECT will be administered 30 to 60 seconds after propofol is injected. ECT may be given up to three times per week.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of patients receiving ECT who agree to the modified form of treatment after it is offered. [ Time Frame: 6 months ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Rate at which ECT is offered and refused. [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  2. Change in patient anxiety measured by the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. [ Time Frame: Baseline and completion of ECT treatments or up to 6 months, whichever comes first ]
  3. Inpatient length of stay calculated from onset of ECT administration. [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  4. Number of ECTs required to complete a course of treatment [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  5. Changes in scales used to assess severity of symptoms. The investigators will record changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Severity scale. [ Time Frame: Baseline and completion of ECT treatments or up to 6 months, whichever comes first ]
  6. Cognitive changes, monitored by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) [ Time Frame: Baseline and completion of ECT treatments or up to 6 months, whichever comes first ]
  7. Monitoring of adverse effects such the occurence of emergent delirium, headaches, muscle aches, nausea and vomiting, and fractures and dislocations. [ Time Frame: Baseline and completion of ECT treatments or up to 6 months, whichever comes first ]
  8. Monitoring of delirium using the test with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). [ Time Frame: Baseline and completion of ECT treatments or up to 6 months, whichever comes first ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Subjects are any psychiatric patients at C.S.M. for whom ECT is recommended by their doctor, whether or not they actually receive ECT.
  • Subjects must also have an American Society for Anesthesiologists (ASA) rating score of 1 (completely healthy) or 2 (mild systemic disease) with stable symptoms and laboratory values.
  • Subjects must be between the ages of 18 to 65 years old and be able to give informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients who speak neither English nor Hindi.
  • History of or anatomical evidence for a difficult airway being a short mandible, micrognathia, large tongue or large goiter, arthritis of the jaw or neck, or enlarged tonsils. For this reason we will also exclude patients with a BMI > 28.
  • Respiratory tract disease including asthma, respiratory infection, chest wall disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea, or other disorder which might compromise the airway. Patients who smoke 15 or more cigarettes per day will be excluded unless abstinent for at least 10 days, to reduce the risk of respiratory complications.
  • Patients who receive modified ECT during the first phase of the study.
  • Pregnant women or women who are breastfeeding.
  • Hypersensitivity to propofol or any of its components.
  • Patients who are hemodynamically unstable or who have impaired cardiac function.
  • BMI < 18.
  • Patients with a history of epilepsy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01526395

Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University, U.P. & G.M. & Associated Hospitals
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 226003
Sponsors and Collaborators
Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University
Principal Investigator: Irving M Reti, MBBS Johns Hopkins University

Responsible Party: Irving Reti, Associate Professor, Johns Hopkins University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01526395     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NA_00027421
First Posted: February 3, 2012    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: April 4, 2013
Last Verified: April 2013

Keywords provided by Irving Reti, Johns Hopkins University:
electroconvulsive therapy

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Depressive Disorder
Depressive Disorder, Major
Bipolar Disorder
Pathologic Processes
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
Mental Disorders
Mood Disorders
Behavioral Symptoms
Bipolar and Related Disorders
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anesthetics, Intravenous
Anesthetics, General