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Cancer Vaccine Targeting Brachyury Protein in Tumors

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01519817
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 27, 2012
Results First Posted : July 31, 2017
Last Update Posted : January 29, 2018
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
James Gulley, M.D., National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Brief Summary:


- Cancer vaccines are being developed to help teach the body's immune system to attack and destroy cancer cells. A new vaccine being tested targets Brachyury protein. This protein is present in some tumor cells, and it can help tumor cells spread to other parts of the body. Researchers want to see whether the new Brachyury protein vaccine can help treat people with advanced carcinomas.


- To test the safety and effectiveness of a cancer vaccine that targets Brachyury protein in tumor cells.


  • Individuals at least 18 years of age who have advanced cancers that have not responded or are no longer responding to standard treatments.
  • Because the vaccine is made with yeast, people with yeast allergies will not be eligible.


  • Participants will be screened with a medical history and physical exam. Imaging studies will be used to examine the cancer. Heart and thyroid function tests will be conducted. Blood and urine samples will also be collected.
  • Participants will receive vaccine injections every 2 weeks, for a total of seven visits. After seven visits, if the cancer has shrunk or stopped growing, participants will continue to have the vaccine about once a month.
  • Treatment will be monitored with frequent blood tests and imaging studies. Other tests will be given as directed by the study doctors. Some participants will have apheresis to collect additional blood cells for study.
  • Participants will continue to receive the vaccine as long the tumor does not start growing again and there are no serious side effects....

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Neoplasms Malignant Solid Tumors Colon Neoplasms Adenocarcinoma Biological: GI-6301 (Yeast Brachyury Vaccine) Phase 1

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 34 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: An Open Label Phase I Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of GI-6301 Vaccine Consisting of Whole, Heat-Killed Recombinant Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (Yeast) Genetically Modified to Express Brachyury Protein in Adults With Solid Tumors
Actual Study Start Date : January 5, 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 3, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : September 1, 2016

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Vaccines

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Yeast-Brachyury vaccine
Yeast-Brachyury vaccine will be administered subcutaneously at 4 sites on 7 visits, then monthly until patients meet off-treatment criteria.
Biological: GI-6301 (Yeast Brachyury Vaccine)
GI-6301 is a heat-killed, recombinant yeast-based vaccine engineered to express the transcription factor, Brachyury. The Brachyury gene is used to transfect the parental yeast strain (S. cerevisiae W303 - a haploid strain with known mutations from wildtype yeast) to produce the final recombinant vaccine product.
Other Name: Yeast-Brachyury vaccine

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants With Brachyury-Specific T-cell Responses [ Time Frame: Baseline (pre-vaccination) and approximately day 84 (after 6 vaccinations) ]
    A fluorescense activated cell sorting (FACS)-based assay for cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) or cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) T-cells expressing the cytokines interferon (IFN) gamma, interleukin 2 (IL2), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, and/or cluster of differentiation 107a (CD107a) (a marker for lytic potential) was used to determine the numbers of participants showing development or enhancement of the level of brachyury-specific T-cells after vaccination.

  2. Count of Participants With Adverse Events of Escalating Doses of Yeast Brachyury ( GI- 6301) Vaccine [ Time Frame: 4 years and 25 days ]
    Here is the count of participants with serious and non-serious adverse events assessed by the Common Terminology Criteria in Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.0). A non-serious adverse event is any untoward medical occurrence. A serious adverse event is an adverse event or suspected adverse reaction that results in death, a life threatening adverse drug experience, hospitalization, disruption of the ability to conduct normal life functions, congenital anomaly/birth defect or important medical events that jeopardize the patient or subject and may require medical or surgical intervention to prevent one of the previous outcomes mentioned. A non-serious adverse event is any untoward medical occurrence.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants With a Clinical Benefit Assessed by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) [ Time Frame: 3 and 5 months restaging ]
    Clinical benefit is defined as partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) and was assessed by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1. Partial response is ≥30% decrease in the sum of greatest diameters/no new lesions. Progressive disease is ≥20% increase in the sum of greatest diameters/new lesions. Stable disease does not meet criteria for complete response (disappearance of all lesions; no new lesions), partial response, or progressive disease.

  2. Changes in Immune Cell Subsets in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) [ Time Frame: Pre (Baseline) and Day 85 after 6 vaccinations ]
    Blood samples will be collected via apheresis and analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry in PBMCs for cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8), Natural Killer (NK), Natural Killer T (NKT), conventional dendritic cell (cDC), plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC), myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC), Tregs, CD4 central memory (CD4 CM), CD4 effector memory (CD4 EM), CD4 terminal effector memory (CD4 EMRA), CD4 naïve, CD8 CM, CD8 EM, CD8 EMRA, and CD8 naïve cells. Significance of changes in immune cells was determined by p value (Wilcoxon test) and the median and interquartile range of data.

  3. Changes in Serum Levels of Cytokines [ Time Frame: Pre (Baseline) and Day 85 after 6 vaccinations ]
    Blood samples were collected and changes in serum levels of cytokines interferon gamma (IFNg), Interleukin 10 (IL-10), Interleukin 12 (IL-12)p70, Interleukin 1b (IL-1b), Interleukin 2 (IL-2), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Interleukin 8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were assessed by the multiplexed mesoscale assay. Significance of changes in serum levels of cytokines was determined by p value (Wilcoxon test) and the median and interquartile range of data.

  4. Changes in Soluble Cluster of Differentiation 27 (sCD27) [ Time Frame: Pre (Baseline) and Day 85 after 6 vaccinations ]
    Blood samples were collected and changes in serum levels of soluble sCD27 were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Significance of changes in soluble sCD27 was determined by p value (Wilcoxon test) and the median and interquartile range of data.

  5. Median Ratio of Soluble Cluster of Differentiation 27:40L (sCD27:sCD40L) [ Time Frame: Pre (Baseline) and Day 85 after 6 vaccinations ]
    Blood samples were collected and changes in serum levels of the ratio of soluble sCD27:sCD40L was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Significance of changes in soluble sCD27:sCD40L was determined by p value (Wilcoxon test) and the median and interquartile range of data.

  6. Changes in Soluble Cluster of Differentiation 40L (sCD40L) [ Time Frame: Pre (Baseline) and Day 85 after 6 vaccinations ]
    Blood samples were collected and changes in serum levels of soluble sCD27 were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Significance of changes in soluble sCD40L was determined by p value (Wilcoxon test) and the median and interquartile range of data.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 100 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Participants must meet the following criteria for participation:

  • Diagnosis: Patients must have histologically confirmed malignancy by the Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute (NCI), that is metastatic or unresectable locally advanced malignant solid tumor. In the case of Chordoma, unresectable, locally recurrent, or metastatic tumors are acceptable for enrollment, given that this represents incurable disease. Efforts will be made, as much as possible, to enroll patients with tumor types with known increased expression of Brachyury (such as lung, breast, ovarian, prostate, colorectal, pancreatic, or chordoma).
  • Patients may have disease that is measurable or non-measurable but evaluable disease
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 to 1 at study entry (Karnofsky greater than or equal to 70)
  • Age greater than or equal to 18 years. Because no dosing or adverse event data are currently available on the use of Yeast Brachyury vaccine in patients <18 years of age, children are excluded from this study, but will be eligible for future pediatric trials.
  • Prior Therapy: Completed or had disease progression on at least one prior line of diseaseappropriate therapy for metastatic disease, or not be a candidate for therapy of proven efficacy for their disease.
  • Patients must have normal organ and marrow function as defined below:

    • Serum creatinine 1.5 times upper limit of normal OR creatinine clearance on a 24-h urine collection of 60 mL/min.
    • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 2.5 times the upper limits of normal.
    • Total bilirubin less than or equal to 1.5 times upper limit of normal OR in patients with Gilbert's syndrome, a total bilirubin 3.0.
    • Hematological eligibility parameters (within16 days of starting therapy):
    • Granulocyte count 1,500/mm(3)
    • Platelet count 100,000/m(3)
    • Patients must have baseline pulse oximetry > 90% on room air.
  • Recovered completely (Grade 1 or baseline) from any reversible toxicity associated with recent therapy. Typically this is 3 4 weeks for patients who most recently received cytotoxic therapy, except for the nitrosoureas and mitomycin C for which 6 weeks is needed for recovery.
  • There should be a minimum of 2 weeks from any prior chemotherapy, immunotherapy and/or radiation.
  • Prior immune therapy is allowed.
  • Men and women of child-bearing potential must agree to use effective birth control or abstinence during and for a period of 4 months after the last vaccination therapy.
  • Patients with prostate cancer must continue to receive gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy (unless orchiectomy has been done). If a patient has refused GnRH therapy, they may be enrolled on a dose level for which the safety has already been determined.
  • Patients with estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer being treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulator or aromatase inhibitor) who have rising tumor markers as evidence of disease progression or metastatic disease on scans may continue on hormonal therapy while being treated with vaccine.
  • Patients must be negative for yeast allergy skin test
  • Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document.


Patients with any of the following will not be eligible for participation in this study:

- Patients should have no evidence of immune dysfunction as listed below.

  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity due to the potential for decreased immune response to the vaccine.
  • Active autoimmune diseases requiring treatment or a history of autoimmune disease that might be stimulated by vaccine treatment. This requirement is due to the potential risks of exacerbating autoimmunity. However, patients with vitiligo, diabetes mellitus, and hashimoto s thyroiditis on appropriate replacement therapy may be


--Concurrent use of systemic steroids, except for physiologic doses of systemic steroid replacement or local (topical, nasal, or inhaled) steroid use. Limited doses of systemic steroids (e.g., in patients with exacerbations of reactive airway disease or to prevent intravenous (IV) contrast allergic reaction or anaphylaxis in patients who have known contrast allergies) are allowed.

  • History of allergy or untoward reaction to yeast-based products (any hypersensitivity to yeast-based products will be excluded).
  • Pregnant or breast-feeding women, due to the unknown effects of the Yeast Brachyury vaccine on the fetus or infant.
  • Serious intercurrent medical illness which would interfere with the ability of the patient to carry out the treatment program, including, but not limited to, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, or active diverticulitis.
  • Untreated brain metastases (or local treatment of brain metastases within the last 6 months) and or spinal cord metastasis.
  • Patients with pericardial masses >1 cm will be excluded.
  • Concurrent chemotherapy. (However, the following anti-tumor therapies will be allowed: Trastuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2+) breast cancer and hormonal therapy for breast (e.g., selective estrogen receptor modulators, aromatase inhibitors) and prostate cancer (e.g., GnRH antagonists/agonists or antagonists and androgen receptor antagonists).
  • Chronic hepatitis infection, including B and C, because potential immune impairment caused by these disorders may diminish the effectiveness of this immunologic therapy.
  • Patients requiring continuous tricyclic antidepressant therapy should be excluded due to the interference with the yeast skin test in creating false negative test results.
  • Participation in another interventional clinical trial within 28 days before start of study treatment.
  • Any significant disease that, in the opinion of the investigator, may impair the patient s tolerance of study treatment.
  • Significant dementia, altered mental status, or any psychiatric condition that would prohibit the understanding or rendering of informed consent.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01519817

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United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Principal Investigator: James L Gulley, M.D. National Cancer Institute (NCI)
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by James Gulley, M.D., National Cancer Institute (NCI):
Additional Information:
Publications of Results:
Other Publications:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: James Gulley, M.D., Senior Investigator, National Cancer Institute (NCI)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01519817    
Other Study ID Numbers: 120056
First Posted: January 27, 2012    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: July 31, 2017
Last Update Posted: January 29, 2018
Last Verified: January 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by James Gulley, M.D., National Cancer Institute (NCI):
Vaccine Therapy
Dose-Limiting Toxicity
Maximum Tolerated Dose
Clinical Response
Immune Response
Solid Tumor
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Colonic Neoplasms
Colorectal Neoplasms
Intestinal Neoplasms
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Digestive System Diseases
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Colonic Diseases
Intestinal Diseases
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs