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Trial record 2 of 3 for:    pregnant isoniazid

Evaluating the Safety of Immediate Versus Deferred Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01494038
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 16, 2011
Results First Posted : November 20, 2018
Last Update Posted : November 20, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Brief Summary:
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death among HIV-infected persons in low-income settings and can be a serious complication for HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants. Isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy (IPT) is effective in preventing TB infection in HIV-infected adults, but the safety of IPT in pregnant women is unknown. This study evaluated the safety of IPT among HIV-infected pregnant women.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
HIV Infections Tuberculosis Drug: Isoniazid (INH) Drug: Placebo for isoniazid (INH) Phase 4

Detailed Description:

TB disease is the most common HIV-related opportunistic infection and is a leading cause of death among HIV-infected persons in low-income settings. When TB occurs during or soon after pregnancy, it can cause complications for the mother as well as infant TB or death. Infant TB is very difficult to diagnose, and up to half of infant TB cases are caused by maternal TB. It has been shown that treatment for active TB is safe and effective during pregnancy and that IPT is safe and effective in preventing TB infection in HIV-infected adults. However, the safety of IPT in HIV-infected pregnant women is not known, especially in regard to its combination with highly active retroviral therapy (HAART). This study evaluated the safety of immediate (antepartum, or before delivery) versus deferred (postpartum, or after delivery) IPT among HIV-infected pregnant women in high TB incidence settings.

HIV-infected pregnant women were randomly assigned (1:1) to one of two arms: Arm A (immediate/antepartum INH) and Arm B (deferred/postpartum INH group). Women in both arms received oral prenatal multivitamins and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) once daily from study entry through Week 40 postpartum.

Study visits for women occurred at screening, entry, every 4 weeks until labor and delivery, at labor and delivery, and every 4 weeks after delivery until 48 weeks postpartum. Visits consisted of giving a medical history and undergoing a physical exam and blood collection; all visits through the delivery visit also included an obstetrical exam. Presence of HIV infection was documented at screening and a tuberculin skin test (TST) was administered at the delivery visit and at the Week 44 postpartum visit. Study visits for infants occurred at birth and at several time points through Week 48. These visits included a medical history, physical exam, and blood collection. Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) samples, that is, samples taken at many different time points within a 24-hour test period, were collected from a small subset of women, one test period at antepartum and one at postpartum. Sparse PK samples, that is, samples taken at fewer time points within the test period, were collected on all women, once each at antepartum and postpartum.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 956 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Care Provider)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Phase IV Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety of Immediate (Antepartum-Initiated) Versus Deferred (Postpartum-Initiated) Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Among HIV-Infected Women in High Tuberculosis (TB) Incidence Settings
Actual Study Start Date : August 19, 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 6, 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : September 6, 2017

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Isoniazid

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Arm A (Immediate INH Treatment)
Women in Arm A received immediate, or antepartum-initiated, INH treatment. Women received INH at study entry through Week 28, then switched to placebo for INH treatment through Week 40 postpartum.
Drug: Isoniazid (INH)
300-mg tablet once daily by mouth, either from entry through Week 28 antepartum (Arm A) or from Week 12 postpartum through Week 40 postpartum (Arm B)

Drug: Placebo for isoniazid (INH)
Placebo tablet once daily by mouth, either from Week 28 visit through Week 40 postpartum (Arm A) or from entry until Week 12 postpartum visit (Arm B)

Experimental: Arm B (Deferred INH Treatment)
Women in Arm B received deferred, or postpartum-initiated, INH treatment. Women received placebo for INH at study entry through Week 12 postpartum, then switched to INH through Week 40 postpartum.
Drug: Isoniazid (INH)
300-mg tablet once daily by mouth, either from entry through Week 28 antepartum (Arm A) or from Week 12 postpartum through Week 40 postpartum (Arm B)

Drug: Placebo for isoniazid (INH)
Placebo tablet once daily by mouth, either from Week 28 visit through Week 40 postpartum (Arm A) or from entry until Week 12 postpartum visit (Arm B)




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Incidence Rate of Combined Endpoint: Grade 3 or Higher Adverse Events (AEs) Related to Treatment, or AE Causing Discontinuation of Treatment [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    Incidence rate, calculated by Mantel-Haenszel (MH), weighted by gestational age strata 1) gestational age at entry less than 24 weeks or 2) gestational age at entry greater than or equal to 24 weeks. AE's include laboratory results, signs/symptoms, or diagnoses; graded as per Division of AIDS (DAIDS) or by protocol-defined hepatotoxicity measures. Related to treatment indicates possibly, probably, or definitely related to INH or Placebo for INH as judged by Independent Endpoint Review Committee. Discontinuation refers to permanent discontinuation of study treatment.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Mothers With a Fetal Death [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through end of pregnancy ]
    Fetal deaths include both stillbirths and spontaneous abortions; in case of a multiple birth, mothers who had at least one fetal death

  2. Number of Mothers With a Fetus Small for Gestational Age [ Time Frame: Measured at delivery ]
    Small for gestational age was determined by physician at site

  3. Number of Mothers With an Infant Born Prematurely [ Time Frame: Measured at delivery ]
    Premature birth is defined as gestational age of < 37 weeks at delivery.

  4. Number of Mothers With a Low Birth-weight Infant [ Time Frame: Measured on day of birth ]
    Low birth weight is defined as weight < 2500 mg

  5. Number of Mothers With an Infant With a Congenital Anomaly [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    Includes congenital anomalies meeting the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program criteria.

  6. Number of Mothers With an Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: Spontaneous Abortion, Stillbirth, Premature Birth, Low Birth Weight, or Congenital Anomaly [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    In case of a multiple birth, mothers who had at least one adverse pregnancy outcome. Spontaneous abortion is intra-uterine fetal death prior to 20 weeks of gestational age; stillbirth, the same, >= 20 weeks; preterm delivery, < 37 weeks of gestational age; low birth weight, < 2,500 grams, and congenital anomalies meeting the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program criteria.

  7. Number of Infants With Grade 3 or Higher Clinical or Laboratory AE [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    Laboratory, sign/symptom, or diagnoses graded as 3 or higher by DAIDS criteria.

  8. Number of Infants With Grade 3 or Higher Clinical or Laboratory AE Related to Treatment [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    As before, but AE is judged to be possibly, probably, or definitely related to INH or Placebo for INH, by clinic medical staff

  9. Number of Infants Which Are HIV-infected [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through study Week 44 ]
    HIV infection determined during follow-up period. Infection at birth or during breastfeeding

  10. Number of Infants Hospitalized [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    Hospitalization due to reasons other than birth

  11. Incidence Rate of TB Infection Among Mothers [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry to Week 48 after birth ]
    Incidence rates calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata. Probable or confirmed TB infection, as judged by Secondary Endpoint Review Committee

  12. Incidence Rate of Tuberculosis (TB) Among Infants [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    Incidence rates calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata. Probable or confirmed TB, or congenital TB as defined using the Cantwell criteria (see reference), judged by the Secondary Endpoint Review Committee. Includes an infant death due to unknown cause.

  13. Incidence Rate of Infant Death [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    Incidence rate was calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  14. Incidence Rate of Maternal Deaths [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 postpartum ]
    Incidence rate calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  15. Incidence Rate of Combined Endpoints: Maternal TB or Maternal Death [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    Incidence rate calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  16. Incidence Rate of Combined Endpoints: Infant TB or Infant Death [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    Incidence rate calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  17. Incidence Rate of Combined Endpoints: Maternal TB, Maternal Death, Infant TB, or Infant Death [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    Incidence rate calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  18. Incidence Rate of Combined Endpoint, Antepartum: Grade 3 or Higher AE Related to Treatment, or Discontinuation of Treatment Due to AE [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through end of pregnancy ]
    Incidence rate calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata

  19. Incidence Rate of Combined Endpoint, up to 12 Weeks Postpartum: Grade 3 or Higher AE Related to Treatment, or Discontinuation of Treatment Due to AE [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through 12 weeks after birth ]
    Incidence rate calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  20. Incidence Rate, Antepartum, of Grade 3 or Higher AE [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through end of pregnancy ]
    Incidence rates calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  21. Incidence Rate, up to 12 Weeks Postpartum, of Grade 3 or Higher AE [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through 12 weeks postpartum ]
    Incidence rates calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  22. Incidence Rate, Antepartum, of Hepatotoxicity, Defined by Protocol-specific Definition of Hepatotoxicity, Related to Treatment [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through delivery ]
    Incidence rate calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata. Protocol-specific definition of hepatotoxicity: Any one of the following: 1) Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) greater than 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), where ULN is specified by the clinic physician; 2) Total bilirubin > 3 X ULN; 3) ALT greater than 3 X ULN and total bilirubin greater than 2 X ULN; or 4) ALT > 3 X ULN and persistent symptomatic clinical hepatitis

  23. Incidence Rate, to 12 Weeks Postpartum, of Hepatotoxicity, Protocol-specific Definition, Related to Treatment [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through 12 weeks postpartum ]
    Incidence rate calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata

  24. Incidence Rate, Antepartum, of Hepatotoxicity, Protocol-specific Definition, Any Cause [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through delivery ]
    Incidence rate calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  25. Incidence Rate, to 12 Weeks Postpartum, of Hepatotoxicity, Protocol-specific Definition, Any Cause [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through 12 weeks postpartum ]
    Incidence rates calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  26. Incidence Rate, Antepartum, of Hepatotoxicity, Defined by DAIDS, Related to Treatment [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through delivery ]
    Incidence rates calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata. Hepatotoxicity definition as defined by DAIDS AE grading criteria 1.0.

  27. Incidence Rate, up to 12 Weeks Postpartum, of Hepatotoxicity, Defined by DAIDS, Related to Treatment [ Time Frame: Measured from study start through 12 weeks postpartum ]
    Incidence rates calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata

  28. Incidence Rate, Antepartum, of Hepatotoxicity, Defined by DAIDS, Any Cause [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through delivery ]
    Incidence rates calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  29. Incidence Rate, up to 12 Weeks Postpartum, of Hepatotoxicity, Defined by DAIDS, Any Cause [ Time Frame: Measured from study start through 12 weeks postpartum ]
    Incidence rates calculated by Mantel-Haenszel, weighted by gestational age strata.

  30. Number of Mothers With Tuberculosis Resistant to INH [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 postpartum ]
    Resistance to INH from isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as a percentage of mothers who develop culture-confirmed TB

  31. Number of Infants With Tuberculosis Resistant to INH [ Time Frame: Measured from study entry through Week 48 after birth ]
    Resistance to INH from isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as a percentage of infants who develop culture-confirmed TB

  32. Pharmacokinetic (PK) Parameter: Adjusted Mean of Area Under the Curve of Plasma Concentration Versus Time (AUC24h), for INH [ Time Frame: Measured at antepartum (third trimester and >= 2 weeks after starting study drug) and week 16 postpartum (+/-) 4 weeks) while on active INH; blood samples were drawn pre-dose and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours post-dosing. ]
    Pharmacokinetic parameter was estimated from population PK modeling fitted to the intensive PK data. AUC0-24h was predicted using population pharmacokinetic model using the NONMEM software program. A 2-compartment model with first-order absorption with transit compartment and first-order elimination with well-stirred liver model to capture hepatic clearance and first-pass extraction with 1 parameter (hepatic intrinsic clearance) was used,

  33. Pharmacokinetic (PK) Parameter: Adjusted Mean of Area Under the Curve (AUC24h), for EFV [ Time Frame: Measured at antepartum (third trimester and >= 2 weeks after starting study drug) and week 16 postpartum (+/-) 4 weeks) while on active INH; blood samples were drawn pre-dose and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours post-dosing. ]
    Pharmacokinetic parameter was estimated from population PK modeling fitted to the intensive PK data. AUC0-24h was predicted using population pharmacokinetic model using the NONMEM software program. A 2-compartment model with first-order absorption with transit compartment and first-order elimination with well-stirred liver model to capture hepatic clearance and first-pass extraction with 1 parameter (hepatic intrinsic clearance) was used,

  34. Agreement Between Interferon-gamma Release Assay (IGRA) TB Test and Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) Results, Women at Delivery [ Time Frame: Measured at delivery ]
    IGRA done by Quantiferon Gold Test (QGIT). For women, TST is considered positive if greater than or equal to 5 mm

  35. Agreement Between IGRA and TST TB Test Results, Infant [ Time Frame: Measured at week 44 after birth ]
    The TST result was positive if greater than or equal to 10 mm in HIV-negative infants, or greater than or equal to 5 mm in HIV-positive infants.

  36. Agreement Between IGRA and TST TB Tests, Women at 44 Weeks Postpartum [ Time Frame: Measured at Week 44 postpartum ]
    IGRA done by Quantiferon Gold Test (QGIT). For women, TST is considered positive if greater than or equal to 5 mm

  37. Number of Women by Level of Adherence to Prescribed Regimen, as Assessed by Self-report [ Time Frame: Adherence reported every 4 weeks during active treatment; study entry through week 28 for Arm A, week 12 postpartum through week 40 postpartum for Arm B ]
    Adherence is the percentage of expected doses taken during the 28 week active treatment period, categorized as poor (<60%), reasonable (>= 60%, <80%), good (>=80%, <90%), or excellent (>= 90%). Measured by participant's self-report of doses taken within the last 3 days.

  38. Number of Women by Level of Adherence to Prescribed Regimen, as Assessed by Pill Count [ Time Frame: Adherence reported every 4 weeks during active treatment; study entry through week 28 for Arm A, week 12 postpartum through week 40 postpartum for Arm B ]
    Adherence is the percentage of expected doses taken during the 28 week active treatment period. Pill count: participants returned their prescription pill containers, and the remaining (unused) pills were counted.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Documented HIV-1 infection, defined as positive results from two samples collected at different time points. All samples tested must be whole blood, serum, or plasma. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol.
  • Documented HIV treatment, according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and standard of care for HIV infection
  • Pregnant females age 18 years or older
  • Pregnant females between greater than or equal to 13 and less than 18 who are able and willing to provide signed informed consent under local law or pregnant females unable to consent under local law whose parents/legal guardians provide consent or "minimum age of consent according to locally applicable laws or regulations"
  • Pregnancy gestational age confirmed by best available method at site to be greater than or equal to 14 weeks through less than or equal to 34 weeks (34 weeks, 6 days)
  • Weight greater than or equal to 35 kg at screening
  • The following laboratory values obtained within 30 days prior to study entry:

    • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) greater than or equal to 750 cells/mm^3
    • Hemoglobin greater than or equal to 7.5 g/dL
    • Platelet count greater than or equal to 50,000/mm^3
    • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALT)/serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and total bilirubin less than or equal to 1.25 times the upper limit of normal (ULN). (Note: If participant is taking atazanavir, direct bilirubin may be used to determine eligibility.)
  • Intent to remain in current geographical area of residence for the duration of the study

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Any woman with a positive TB symptom screen per WHO guidelines, including any one or more of the following: any cough, fever, self-reported weight loss, or night sweats. Note: If a potential participant is found to be negative for TB upon further testing, the participant may be rescreened for the study.
  • Any positive acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear, Xpert, or any other rapid TB screening test or culture from any site within the past 12 weeks, or chest radiograph (x-ray) with findings suggestive of active TB, or clinician suspects active TB
  • Known exposure to AFB smear-positive active TB case within past 12 weeks prior to study entry
  • Reported INH exposure (more than 30 days) in the past year prior to study entry
  • Receipt of any TB or atypical mycobacteria therapy for more than 30 days in the past year
  • Evidence of acute hepatitis, such as jaundice, dark urine (not concentrated urine), and/or acholic stools sustained for more than 3 days within 90 days prior to entry. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol.
  • Grade 1 or higher peripheral neuropathy. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol.
  • History of acute systemic adverse reaction or allergy to INH
  • Known current heavy alcohol use (more than 2 drinks per week) or alcohol exposure that, in the investigator's opinion, would compromise participation and the outcome of this study
  • Presence of new AIDS-defining opportunistic infection that has been treated less than 30 days prior to study entry
  • Receipt of an investigational agent or chemotherapy for active malignancy within 30 days prior to study entry
  • Any clinically significant diseases (other than HIV infection) or clinically significant findings during the screening medical history or physical examination that, in the investigator's opinion, would compromise participation and the outcome of this study

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01494038


Locations
Botswana
Gaborone CRS
Gaborone, Botswana
Molepolole CRS
Gaborone, Botswana
Haiti
Les Centres GHESKIO Clinical Research Site (GHESKIO-INLR) CRS
Port-au-Prince, Haiti, HT-6110
India
Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College (BJMC) CRS
Pune, Maharashtra, India, 411001
South Africa
Soweto IMPAACT CRS
Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa, 1862
Desmond Tutu TB Centre - Stellenbosch University (DTTC-SU) CRS
Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa, 7505
Fam-Cru Crs
Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa, 7505
Tanzania
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC)
Moshi, Tanzania
Thailand
Chiang Mai University HIV Treatment (CMU HIV Treatment) CRS
Chiang Mai, Thailand, 50200
Uganda
MU-JHU Research Collaboration (MUJHU CARE LTD) CRS
Kampala, Uganda
Zimbabwe
Seke North CRS
Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe
St Mary's CRS
Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe
Harare Family Care CRS
Harare, Zimbabwe
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Investigators
Study Chair: Amita Gupta, MD, MHS Johns Hopkins University
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] November 2, 2017
Study Protocol  [PDF] October 28, 2015


Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01494038     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: P1078
10732 ( Registry Identifier: DAIDS ES )
IMPAACT P1078
First Posted: December 16, 2011    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: November 20, 2018
Last Update Posted: November 20, 2018
Last Verified: October 2018

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Isoniazid
HIV Infections
Tuberculosis
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Mycobacterium Infections
Actinomycetales Infections
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections
Antitubercular Agents
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Hypolipidemic Agents
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Lipid Regulating Agents