Effects of Learning and Food Form on Intake in Humans
Due to the rising incidence of obesity, much emphasis has been placed on identifying mechanisms of increased energy intake. At this point, the mechanisms responsible for the recent increase in obesity prevalence have not been thoroughly examined. Pre-ingestive influences, such as cognitive factors, may play a larger role in creating an energy surplus than previously thought. Expectations about the satiating effect of a food may override the post-ingestive influences in dictating further consumption. In addition, obese individuals may exhibit a decreased compensatory response to foods as compared to lean individuals.
Understanding the effects of energy content, food form, and learning on satiation, satiety, and energy intake will allow for a greater understanding of the mechanisms of energy imbalance as a whole. Food choice is dictated by sensory properties and post-ingestive effects. By utilizing foods with similar sensory properties, the acquired knowledge derived from ingesting these foods can be monitored by analyzing subsequent intake at the same meal and at subsequent eating occurrences. It is hypothesized that the liquid food form will elicit weaker dietary compensation; that is, energy intake at other eating events will not be adjusted to compensate for that food. In addition, it is posited that the lower energy food will cause lower compensation postprandially. By having participants consume the same test food daily over a two week learning period, it is thought that they will show improved dietary compensation when the initial testing is repeated due to learned associations between food properties and metabolism.
|Obesity||Behavioral: Metabolic effects of consuming energy dense beverages Behavioral: energy dense solid food Behavioral: Energy dilute beverages Behavioral: Energy dilute solid food|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
|Official Title:||Effects of Learning and Food Form on Intake in Humans|
- energy intake [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]Energy consumed over 12 weeks of intervention.
- dietary compensation [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]spontaneous dietary adjustment in response to intervention
- appetite [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]Effects of intervention on appetitive sensation such as hunger and fullness
- effects of learning on energy intake [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]The effects of learning based on exposure to products that are high or low in energy and liquid or solid
- Effects of food form on energy intake [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]The effects of food form on energy intake before and after chronic exposure to foods varying in food form and energy density
- Effects of BMI on sensory learning [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]The effects of BMI on appetite, energy intake and dietary compensation
- Effects of personality traits on appetite, energy intake and compensation [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]Effects of personality traits related to feeding on appetite, energy intake and compensation following exposure to foods of different physical form, energy density and before and after learning.
|Study Start Date:||September 2011|
|Study Completion Date:||May 2015|
|Primary Completion Date:||September 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Energy dense beverage
Metabolic effects of consuming energy dense beverages before and after regular consumption
Behavioral: Metabolic effects of consuming energy dense beverages
Consumption of energy dense beverages for 2 weeks and monitoring physiological responses
Experimental: Energy dense solid food form
Metabolic effects of consuming energy dense solid foods before and after regular exposure.
Behavioral: energy dense solid food
Effects of consuming energy dense solid food for two weeks on physiological responses
Experimental: Eenergy dilute beverages
Metabolic effects of consumption of energy dilute beverages on a regular basis.
Behavioral: Energy dilute beverages
Effects of consuming energy dilute beverages for two weeks on physiological responses.
Experimental: Energy dilute solid food form
Metabolic effects of consuming energy dilute sold foods before and after regular exposure.
Behavioral: Energy dilute solid food
Effects of consuming energy dilute solid food for two weeks on physiological responses
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01490034
|United States, Indiana|
|W. Lafayette, Indiana, United States, 47907|