Change in Peripheral Oxygen Saturation by Using Different Breathing Procedures in High Altitude
|Acute Mountain Sickness||Other: Breathing procedure 1 Other: Breathing procedure 2|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
- change of peripheral oxygen saturation [ Time Frame: immediate after intervention ]change of peripheral oxygen saturation under different breathing procedures in different altitudes
- change of breathing parameters [ Time Frame: immediate after intervention ]
change of breathing parameters under different breathing procedures in different altitudes
- breathing rate
- minute ventilation
- expiratory end-tidal CO2-partial pressure
- change of cognition [ Time Frame: immediate after intervention ]change of ability of cognition (measured by d2-test) under different breathing procedures in different altitudes
|Study Start Date:||July 2011|
|Study Completion Date:||November 2011|
|Primary Completion Date:||October 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Breathing procedure 1
Walking with breathing procedure "1".
Other: Breathing procedure 1
inhalation during one step, exhalation during the next step
Experimental: Breathing procedure 2
Walking with breathing procedure "2".
Other: Breathing procedure 2
inhalation and exhalation during one step
No Intervention: Control group
Walking without any reglementation of breathing
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a pathological effect of high altitude on humans caused by acute exposure to low partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude. It commonly occurs above 2500 meters of altitude. AMS appears as a collection of nonspecific symptoms acquired at high altitude or in low air pressure resembling a case of "flu, carbon monoxide poisoning, or a hangover".
It is caused by a drop in pressure and lowering partial pressure of oxygen during increasing altitude. The direct consequence of those changes is a hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (Euler-Lijestrand-mechanism). In addition a rise in pulmonary blood pressure (Hypertonia) can occur so that there is a higher risk of developing a high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE).
In this investigation the investigators are exploring whether different types of breathing procedures can improve the peripheral oxygen saturation. We are comparing breathing with no regulation with two different procedures of hyperventilation during trekking in different altitudes. Procedure 1 (hyperventilation 1) describes inhalation during one step and exhalation during the next step. Procedure 2 (hyperventilation 2) describes inhalation and exhalation during one step.
The effect of the different breathing procedures can be quantified measuring the peripheral oxygen saturation. In addition the investigators are comparing the breathing rate and the minute ventilation as well as the expiratory end-tidal CO2-partial pressure of the three different breathing procedures.
Furthermore, the investigators are examining the ability to concentrate in order to quantify the effect of AMS on organ functions.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01468194
|University of Giessen|
|Giessen, Hessen, Germany, 35394|
|Principal Investigator:||Gabor Szalay, Dr. med.||Trauma surgery - University hospital Giessen|