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A Key Link for Transmission Prevention (MP3)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
William (Bill) C. Miller, MD, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01450189
First received: September 18, 2011
Last updated: May 10, 2016
Last verified: May 2016
  Purpose

This pilot study will assess the feasibility for the potential public health benefit of behavioral and antiretroviral interventions during acute HIV infection.

Central Hypothesis The investigators hypothesize that delivering behavioral and antiretroviral interventions to acutely infected persons will reduce onward transmission.


Condition Intervention
HIV
Behavioral: Standard HIV prevention messages
Behavioral: BI: Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model
Drug: Raltegravir
Drug: emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Acute HIV Infection - A Key Link for Transmission Prevention: A Randomized Pilot Study

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Proportion of Persons Agreeing to be Screened for Acute HIV Infection Among Those Offered Screening [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Prevalence of AHI Among Persons Screened [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Prevalence of AHI among all persons screened. This measure is among all persons screened, prior to randomization.

  • Proportion of Persons With AHI Successfully Recruited Into the Study [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    This outcome reflects the ability to recruit persons with AHI into a study. The outcome is based on the population prior to randomization.

  • Proportion of Participants Completing Full Course of ARVs in Arm BIA [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Proportion of participants in the BIA arm receiving full course of ARVs. This outcome is calculated among the BIA arm only, as that

  • Proportion of Participants in Arm BI and BIA (Combined) Who Complete the 4 Behavioral Sessions Within 3 Weeks of Enrollment. [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    In this pilot study, we addressed our ability to complete the behavioral intervention quickly. As two arms received the behavioral intervention, this outcome is combined across those two arms.

  • Proportion of Persons Completing All Scheduled Visits in Each Study Arm [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Number of Adverse Events [ Time Frame: one year ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Mean number of adverse events per group


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Unprotected Sex Acts in Previous One Week - 12 Weeks [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The mean number of unprotected sex acts in previous one week, assessed at 12 weeks

  • Unprotected Sex Acts in Previous One Week - 26 Weeks [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The mean number of unprotected sex acts in previous one week, assessed at 26 weeks

  • Unprotected Sex Acts in Previous One Week - 52 Weeks [ Time Frame: 52 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The mean number of unprotected sex acts in previous one week, assessed at 52 weeks

  • Unprotected Sex Acts in Previous One Month - 12 Weeks [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The mean number of unprotected sex acts in previous one month, assessed at 12 weeks

  • Unprotected Sex Acts in Previous One Month - 26 Weeks [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The mean number of unprotected sex acts in previous one month, assessed at 26 weeks

  • Unprotected Sex Acts in Previous One Month - 52 Weeks [ Time Frame: 52 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The mean number of unprotected sex acts in previous one month, assessed at 52 weeks

  • Cumulative Incidence of Gonorrhea, Chlamydial Infection and Trichomoniasis (Composite) [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Cumulative incidence, definied as at least one incident infection with either gonorrhea, chlamydia or trichomoniasis

  • Cumulative Incidence of Gonorrhea, Chlamydial Infection and Trichomoniasis (Composite) [ Time Frame: 52 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    At least one incident infection with either gonorrhea, chlamydia or trichomoniasis

  • Cumulative Incidence Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    cumulative incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2, assessed at 26 weeks. Persons with baseline positivity were excluded.

  • Cumulative Incidence Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 [ Time Frame: 52 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    cumulative incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2, assessed at 52 weeks. Persons with baseline positivity were excluded.

  • Number of Partners Reporting for HIV Testing [ Time Frame: 52 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of partners per index reporting for HIV testing at any time during follow-up

  • Proportion of Partners Reporting for HIV Testing [ Time Frame: 52 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Proportion of sexual partners reporting for HIV testing among all sexual partners named by the index participants

  • Suppression of HIV RNA to <1000c/ml at 12 Weeks [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Proportion of persons in each arm with viral load <1000copies/ml at 12 weeks

  • Time to HIV RNA Suppression <1000 c/ml [ Time Frame: From date of randomization until viral load suppression, up to 52 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    median time to viral load suppression (<1000 c/ml)

  • Blood HIV RNA Concentration at Week 12 [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Blood HIV RNA Concentration at Week 26 [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Blood HIV RNA Concentration at Week 52 [ Time Frame: 52 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Genital HIV RNA Concentration - Week 12, Women [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    median HIV RNA concentration in cervical lavage fluid

  • Genital HIV RNA Concentration - Week 26, Women [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    median HIV RNA concentration in cervical lavage fluid

  • Genital HIV RNA Concentration - Week 52, Women [ Time Frame: 52 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    median HIV RNA concentration in cervical lavage fluid

  • Genital HIV RNA Concentration - Week 12, Men [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    median HIV RNA concentration as measured in semen

  • Genital HIV RNA Concentration - Week 26, Men [ Time Frame: 26 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    median HIV RNA concentration as measured in semen

  • Genital HIV RNA Concentration - Week 52, Men [ Time Frame: 52 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    median HIV RNA concentration as measured in semen


Enrollment: 46
Study Start Date: October 2011
Study Completion Date: July 2014
Primary Completion Date: July 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Standard Counseling Arm
The SC arm consists of a single session of standard HIV prevention messages during HIV post-test counseling. The counseling will be comparable to that given to persons with established HIV infection with supplemental information regarding the acute stage of their infection.
Behavioral: Standard HIV prevention messages
A single session of standard HIV prevention messages during HIV post-test counseling with supplemental information regarding the acute stage of their infection.
Active Comparator: Behavioral Intervention Arm only
Behavior- BI: Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model. The 5 sessions are designed to provide participants with the information, motivation, and skills needed to abstain or practice protected sex during the brief acute HIV period, as well as plan for long-term behavioral risk reduction.
Behavioral: Standard HIV prevention messages
A single session of standard HIV prevention messages during HIV post-test counseling with supplemental information regarding the acute stage of their infection.
Behavioral: BI: Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model
The behavioral intervention consists of five counselor-delivered sessions based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model. The sessions are designed to provide participants with the information, motivation, and skills needed to abstain or practice protected sex during the brief acute HIV period, as well as plan for long-term behavioral risk reduction.
Active Comparator: Behavioral Intervention plus ARV
The BIA arm consists of the behavioral intervention plus antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) with raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) and fixed dose combination (FDC) emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) (200/300 mg daily) orally for 12 weeks.
Behavioral: Standard HIV prevention messages
A single session of standard HIV prevention messages during HIV post-test counseling with supplemental information regarding the acute stage of their infection.
Behavioral: BI: Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model
The behavioral intervention consists of five counselor-delivered sessions based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model. The sessions are designed to provide participants with the information, motivation, and skills needed to abstain or practice protected sex during the brief acute HIV period, as well as plan for long-term behavioral risk reduction.
Drug: Raltegravir
raltegravir (400 mg) administered orally twice daily for 12 weeks
Other Name: Isentress, RAL
Drug: emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
emtricitabine/tenofovir (200/300 mg daily) in a fixed dose combination administered orally for 12 weeks
Other Name: Truvada, FTC/TDF

Detailed Description:

The HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is severe and continues to grow. In urban areas of Malawi, 19% of pregnant women seeking antenatal care and 15.6% of Malawians aged 15-49 years were infected with HIV in 2007. Prevention interventions that prevent onward transmission of HIV are urgently needed.

Persons with acute HIV infection (AHI) may be responsible for a substantial proportion of onward transmission of HIV infection. AHI is characterized by unfettered replication of HIV in a "ramp up viremia". The high concentration of HIV in blood and genital secretions remains elevated for up to 10-12 weeks before it declines to the levels observed in established infection. These high levels of HIV shedding in the genital tract are likely to produce very efficient sexual transmission and the proportion of virions that are infectious may be substantially higher during acute compared to chronic infection. Consequently, the probability of transmission during unprotected intercourse for those with AHI is very high. Identifying persons with AHI and intervening to reduce onward transmission represents a tantalizing, but unproven, opportunity for HIV prevention.

To have maximal impact, a prevention program targeting AHI must identify a substantial number of acutely infected persons and intervene quickly to minimize onward transmission. An effective immediate intervention would require behavioral modification to limit sexual partners and unprotected sex acts, and a biological intervention to reduce infectious viral burden in genital secretions. This is the first study to pilot a combined behavioral and biomedical intervention in individuals with AHI to reduce onward transmission of HIV.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult)
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Primary participants:

  • Acute HIV-1 infection
  • Men and women age greater than/= 18 years.
  • Intention to remain in the Lilongwe area for the duration of the study.
  • Ability and willingness of participant to provide informed consent.
  • Willingness to provide contact/locator information, be contacted, and asked to return for AHI results.

Partner Participants:

  • Referred by a primary participant and present with a referral card.
  • Had vaginal or anal sex with a primary participant within 12 weeks prior to that primary participant's enrolling
  • Men and women age greater than/=18 years.
  • remain in the Lilongwe area for the duration of the study.
  • Ability and willingness of participant to provide informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

Primary Participants:

  • HIV infection based on two positive HIV antibody rapid tests at the time of screening.
  • HIV-negative based on one or more antibody rapid test and an HIV RNA PCR test.
  • Serious illness, including tuberculosis or opportunistic infection, requiring systemic treatment and/or hospitalization.
  • Active drug or alcohol use or dependence.
  • Current imprisonment or involuntary incarceration.
  • Any other condition that in the opinion of the study investigator would compromise the safety of the study participant or study staff, or would prevent proper conduct of the study.

Partner Participants:

  • Active drug or alcohol use or dependence.
  • Current imprisonment or involuntary incarceration in a medical facility for psychiatric or physical illness.

Exclusion for Receipt of Antiretroviral Drugs in the BIA Arm

Note:A key component of this pilot study is to estimate the potential effect of ARVs during acute infection when applied on a large population scale.In effect, this pilot study should be viewed as a pilot for an effectiveness trial. Consequently, we will randomize all eligible participants to one of the three arms. If, however, persons should not receive ARVs for a variety of medically-related reasons, these persons will remain in the BIA arm, but will not receive ARVs. Women who are of reproductive potential but who refuse to use at least one form of contraception (see below), will remain in the BIA arm but will not receive ARVs. Similarly, persons randomized to the BI arm who do not attend all sessions will remain in the BI arm.

Persons randomized to BIA with any of the following conditions will be excluded from receiving ARVs, but will remain in the BIA group for purposes of analysis.

  • Laboratory values obtained at Day 0 prior to initiating ARVs at a subsequent visit
  • Absolute neutrophil count <300/mm3
  • Hemoglobin <8.0 g/dL
  • Platelet count <40,000/mm3
  • Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase > 5 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • Total bilirubin >2.5 x ULN
  • Creatinine Clearance (CrCl) <60 mL/min
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen positivity
  • Positive serum or urine pregnancy test at Day 0.
  • Breastfeeding
  • Refusal to use at least one method of contraception, if a woman is of reproductive potential.

Acceptable forms of contraception include: condoms (male or female) with or without a spermicidal agent, diaphragm or cervical cap with spermicide, intrauterine device (IUD), or a hormonal-based contraceptive.

Women not meeting the reproductive potential criteria above may receive the study drugs without using contraception.

  • Known allergy/sensitivity or any hypersensitivity to components of study drug(s) or their formulation.
  • Requirement for any current medications that are prohibited with any study drugs.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01450189

Locations
Malawi
Lighthouse Trust, Kamuzu Central Hospital
Lilongwe, Malawi
UNC Project
Lilongwe, Malawi
Sponsors and Collaborators
William (Bill) C. Miller, MD
Investigators
Study Chair: William C Miller, MD, PhD, MPH University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Study Chair: Audrey Pettifor, PhD, MPH University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Principal Investigator: Sam Phiri, PhD, MSc Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi
  More Information

Responsible Party: William (Bill) C. Miller, MD, PI, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01450189     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 11-0815  CID 1002 
Study First Received: September 18, 2011
Results First Received: January 13, 2016
Last Updated: May 10, 2016
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board
Malawi: National Health Sciences Research Committee

Keywords provided by University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill:
Acute HIV
Transmission Prevention
Randomized Pilot study

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Tenofovir
Raltegravir Potassium
Emtricitabine
Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Combination
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Anti-HIV Agents
HIV Integrase Inhibitors
Integrase Inhibitors

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on September 28, 2016