Primary Outcome Measures:
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- Investigate the relationship between cefazolin concentrations in the plasma and those at the level of IF of skeletal muscle [ Time Frame: One Year ]
- Investigate the effects of CPB, DHCA, and MUF on tissue distribution of cefazolin
- Determine the concentration of cefazolin in IF of skeletal muscle at different stages of cardiac surgery and compare these values to concentrations of cefazolin needed to be effective against common bacterial organisms causing SSIs
- Investigate the relationship between cefazolin concentrations in the plasma and those at the level of IF of skeletal muscle.
- Assess the safety of the use of microdialysis method during pediatric cardiac surgery
This study aims to sample interstitial fluid (IF) of infants undergoing superior cava-pulmonary anastomosis (either Glenn or Hemi-Fontan) cardiac surgical procedures who receive cefazolin as their surgical prophylactic antibiotic. Cefazolin concentrations will then be determined in both microdialysate and plasma samples and used to define the pharmacokinetics of cefazolin at the tissue level and compare that to plasma pharmacokinetics. In addition, the data gathered will be used to assess how cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), deep hypothermic cardiac arrest (DHCA), and modified ultrafiltration (MUF) affect tissue penetration of the prophylactically administered cefazolin.
The study involves the use of microdialysis (MD) and plasma sampling methods to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of cefazolin when used as a prophylactic antibiotic during the second palliation procedure (superior vena cava-pulmonary anastomosis) for infants with single ventricle physiology. This requires the use of microdialysis (MD) catheters inserted into the left deltoid muscle in eligible subjects after the induction of general anesthesia as well as collection of microdialysate and blood samples throughout the duration of the procedure. Cefazolin will be administered as standard of care. Cefazolin concentrations in the collected samples will be measured via a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry assay. Pharmacokinetic analyses will be performed.