A Study of the Neurological Effects of Adding Maraviroc to HAART Regimen in Patients With HIV (HANDmac) (HANDmac)
HIV related cognitive impairment still occurs despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HIV disease affects the brain in 20-40% of patients with advancing HIV disease; leading to varying degrees of cognitive impairment, recently termed HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). HAND may occur in patients who are virally suppressed in both blood and CSF.
Patients with HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) who are virally suppressed in both their blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), whilst on a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen may have significant cognitive improvement with HAART intensification with the medication Maraviroc; compared to those who remain on their existing regimen.
This study will be a prospective, interventional, randomised and unblinded controlled clinical trial. The aim of this study will be to determine whether HAART intensification with the medication Maraviroc, leads to significant improvement in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).
Patients with the recent progression (within 6 months) of HAND (validated by neuropsychological assessment) on HAART, who are virally suppressed (<50 copies per ml) in blood and CSF will be randomised to have their existing HAART regimen intensified with Maraviroc, or not. The control arm will remain on their medication regimen as prescribed. The target is to enrol 70 patients into the control group, and 70 patients into the Maraviroc intensification group.
Patients will undergo baseline neuropsychological testing, MRI, blood tests, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests (via a lumbar puncture). The methods used to determine the effectiveness of adding Maraviroc, will include further neuropsychological assessment at 6 months, and neuropsychological assessment, MRI and CSF assessment again at 12 months.
Neuropsychological testing completed at 6 and 12 months will be completed by a "blind assessor", in that they will have no knowledge of which arm (treatment or control) the participant is enrolled in.
An evaluation (neuropsychological testing) will be performed should the patient deteriorate during the course of the study, as recognised by the patient's managing physician.
At the end of the study protocol (12 months) the patient's HAART therapy will be managed by their primary physician.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial of the Efficacy of HAART Intensification With Maraviroc in HIV Virally Suppressed Patients With Cognitive Impairment|
- Change in Neurocognitive Functioning [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6-months and 12-months ]Change in overall neurocognitive performance, defined as a global neurocognitive z-score, over the study time-period (baseline, 6-months, 12-months). To derive this score, 1) raw scores obtained from a 5-domain brief neurocognitive battery were converted to age-corrected z-scores (M=0, SD=1) and 2) the set of individual subtest z-scores were averaged to generate a single composite (global) z-score for each subject. Lower (negative) scores therefore indicate greater levels of cognitive impairment.
- Change in CSF Neopterin Concentration [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12-months ]Change in concentration of the CSF neuroinflammatory marker neopterin (measured in nmol/L) from baseline to 12-months.
- Change in MRS Cerebral Metabolite Ratios in Basal Ganglia [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 months ]Change in major cerebral metabolites in the basal ganglia, as measured by 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), between baseline and 12-months. Spectra were acquired on a Phillips Achieva 3T MRI scanner using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with short echot time (TE). jMRUI/AMARES algorithm was used to process spectra. Metabolite ratios were calculated for the following metabolites: N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mIo), in relation to internal water (H20) as standard.
- Change in MRS Cerebral Metabolite Ratios in Frontal White Matter [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 months ]Change in major cerebral metabolites in the frontal white matter, as measured by 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), between baseline and 12-months. Spectra were acquired on a Phillips Achieva 3T MRI scanner using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with short TE. jMRUI/AMARES algorithm was used to process spectra. Metabolite ratios were calculated for the following metabolites: N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mIo), glutamate/glutamine complex (Glx), in relation to internal H2O as standard.
|Study Start Date:||October 2011|
|Study Completion Date:||September 2014|
|Primary Completion Date:||September 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
No Intervention: Standard of care HAART regimen
Participants randomised to this arm of the trial will remain on their usual prescribed HAART regimen.
Participants randomised to this arm will remain on their usual prescribed HAART regimen, with the addition of Maraviroc. Maraviroc will be prescribed according to the Product Information Sheet, with consideration given to background therapy.
Maraviroc oral tablet. Dosage: 150 mg twice daily, 300 mg twice daily, or 600 mg twice daily. Dosing will be dependent on the participant's background HAART therapy, and will be in accordance with the product information sheet.
Other Name: Celsentri
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01449006
|Australia, New South Wales|
|St. Vincent's Hospital|
|Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 2010|
|The Alfred Hospital|
|Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3181|
|Principal Investigator:||Bruce J Brew, MBBS, PhD||St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia|