Chloroquine in Combination With VELCADE and Cyclophosphamide for Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01438177
Recruitment Status : Terminated (PI left institution.)
First Posted : September 21, 2011
Results First Posted : June 1, 2015
Last Update Posted : March 13, 2018
Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
New York University School of Medicine

Brief Summary:
This pilot phase II trial studies how well giving bortezomib and cyclophosphamide together with chloroquine works in treating patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Multiple Myeloma Drug: Velcade Drug: Cyclophosphamide Drug: Chloroquine Phase 2

Detailed Description:
Bortezomib may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cyclophosphamide, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Chloroquine may help chemotherapy drugs work better by making cancer cells more sensitive to the drug. Giving bortezomib and cyclophosphamide together with chloroquine may kill more cancer cells.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 11 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase II, Trial of Chloroquine in Combination With VELCADE and Cyclophosphamide in Patients With Relapsed and Refractory Myeloma
Study Start Date : October 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date : February 2014
Actual Study Completion Date : February 2014

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Velcade+Cyclophosphamide+Chloroquine

VELCADE given by intravenous push at 1.3 mg/m^2 on days 1, 4, 8, 11, 22, 25, 29 and 32.

Cyclophosphamide given at 50 mg orally twice per day on days 1-14 and 22-35.

Chloroquine given at 500 mg orally daily on days 1-14 and 22-35.

Each cycle is 42 days in length.

Drug: Velcade
Other Names:
  • Bendamustine HCl
  • Treanda
  • Bortezomib
Drug: Cyclophosphamide
Other Names:
  • Cytoxan
  • Neosar
  • Endoxan
  • Revimmune
  • Procytox
Drug: Chloroquine
Other Name: Aralen

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Response Rate (CR + PR After 2 Cycles) [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years ]

    Response rate is defined as the percentage of patients who have a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR). Responses were assessed every two cycles of treatment, based on the criteria published by the International Myeloma Working Group (Durie, et al, 2006). Per International Myeloma Working Group response criteria:

    CR: Negative immunofixation on the serum and urine and disappearance of any soft tissue plasmacytomas and < 5% plasma cells in bone marrow PR: > 50% reduction of serum M-protein and reduction in 24 hours urinary M-protein by >90% or to < 200 mg/24 h

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants With Adverse Events of Grade 3 or Higher [ Time Frame: Treatment period plus 30 days post-treatment ]
    Adverse events reported here were at least possibly related to the protocol therapy.

  2. Percentage of Subjects Who Have Complete Response or Partial Response and Have 2+ or Higher Autophagy [ Time Frame: until clinical response (up to 2 years) ]
  3. Median Duration of Response of This Regimen [ Time Frame: up to 2 years ]
    Duration of response is the time from response (CR or PR) until progression of disease or relapse. Responses and progression were evaluated based on the criteria published by the International Myeloma Working Group (Durie, et al, 2006).

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Voluntary written informed consent before performance of any study-related procedure not part of normal medical care, with the understanding that consent may be withdrawn by the subject at any time without prejudice to future medical care.
  2. Female subject is either post-menopausal for at least 1 year before the screening visit, is surgically sterilized or if they are of childbearing potential, agree to practice 2 effective methods of contraception from the time of signing the informed consent form through 30 days after the last dose of VELCADE, or agree to completely abstain from heterosexual intercourse. Male subjects, even if surgically sterilized (ie, status postvasectomy) must agree to 1 of the following: practice effective barrier contraception during the entire study treatment period and through a minimum of 30 days after the last dose of study drug, or completely abstain from heterosexual intercourse.
  3. Diagnosis of multiple myeloma based on standard criteria as follows:

    Major Criteria:

    I. Plasmacytomas on tissue biopsy

    II. Bone marrow plasmacytosis (>30% plasma cells)

    III. Monoclonal immunoglobulin spike on serum electrophoresis (IgG >3.5 G/dL or IgA > 2.0 G/dL) or kappa or lambda light chain excretion> 1 G/day on 24 hour urine protein electrophoresis

    Minor Criteria

    1. Bone marrow plasmacytosis (10 to 30% plasma cells)
    2. Monoclonal immunoglobulin present but of lesser magnitude than given under major criteria
    3. Lytic bone lesions
    4. Normal IgM < 50 mg/dL, IgA < 100 mg/dL, or IgG < 600 mg/dL

    Any of the following sets of criteria will confirm the diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma:

    • Any two of the major criteria
    • Major criterion I plus minor criterion b, c, or d
    • Major criterion III plus minor criterion a or c
    • Minor criteria a, b and c or a, b and d
  4. Measurable disease, defined as a monoclonal immunoglobulin spike on serum electrophoresis of ≥ 1 Gm/dL and/or urine monoclonal immunoglobulin spike of ≥ 200 mg/24 hours.
  5. Patients must have refractory myeloma as defined by a greater than 25% increase in their M-protein. They should have progressed on a combination of VELCADE and cyclophosphamide.
  6. Non-secretors must have measurable protein by Freelite or measurable disease such as plasmacytoma to be eligible.
  7. Karnofsky performance status ≥ 50
  8. Patients treated with local radiotherapy with or without a brief exposure to steroids are eligible. Patients who require concurrent radiotherapy should have entry to the protocol deferred until the radiotherapy is completed
  9. Meets the following pretreatment laboratory criteria at Baseline (Day 1 of Cycle 1, before study drug administration)

    • Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 0.5 x 10^3/uL
    • Calculated or measured creatinine clearance ≥ 30 mL/min
  10. Age 18 years or older

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. POEMS syndrome (plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein (M-protein) and skin changes)
  2. Plasma cell leukemia
  3. Receiving steroids daily for other medical conditions, e.g., asthma, systemic lupus erythematosis, rheumatoid arthritis
  4. Infection not controlled by antibiotics
  5. HIV infection. Patients should provide consent for HIV testing according to the institution's standard practice
  6. Known active hepatitis B or C
  7. Patient had myocardial infarction within 6 months prior to enrollment, New York Hospital Association (NYHA) Class III or IV heart failure, (see appendix D), uncontrolled angina, severe uncontrolled ventricular arrhythmias, or electrocardiographic evidence of acute ischemia or active conduction system abnormalities. Prior to study entry, any ECG abnormality at screening must be documented by the investigator as not medically relevant.
  8. Diagnosed or treated for another malignancy within 3 years of enrollment, with the exception of complete resection of basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, an in situ malignancy, or low-risk prostate cancer after curative therapy.
  9. Radiation therapy within 3 weeks before randomization. Enrollment of subjects who require concurrent radiotherapy (which must be localized in its field size) should be deferred until the radiotherapy is completed and 3 weeks have elapsed since the last date of therapy.
  10. Other serious medical or psychiatric illness that could potentially interfere with the completion of treatment according to this protocol
  11. Female subject is pregnant or lactating. Confirmation that the subject is not pregnant must be established by a negative serum B-human chorionic gonadotropin (B hCG) pregnancy test result obtained during screening. Pregnancy testing is not required for postmenopausal or surgically sterilized women.
  12. Patient has > Grade 2 peripheral neuropathy
  13. Patient has known hypersensitivity to VELCADE, boron or mannitol, quinidine or quinidine derivatives or to cyclophosphamide or any component of the formulation.
  14. Participation in clinical trials with other investigational agents not included in this trial, within 14 days of the start of this trial and throughout the duration of this trial.
  15. Patients with preexisting retinal or visual field changes.
  16. Patient has > 1.5 x upper limit of normal Total Bilirubin

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01438177

United States, New York
NYU Cancer Institute
New York, New York, United States, 10016
Sponsors and Collaborators
New York University School of Medicine
Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Principal Investigator: Amitabha Mazumder, MD NYU Langone Medical Center

Responsible Party: New York University School of Medicine Identifier: NCT01438177     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 10-02008
First Posted: September 21, 2011    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: June 1, 2015
Last Update Posted: March 13, 2018
Last Verified: February 2018

Keywords provided by New York University School of Medicine:
multiple myeloma
relapsed myeloma
refractory myeloma

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Multiple Myeloma
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Hemostatic Disorders
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Blood Protein Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Chloroquine diphosphate
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antirheumatic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Alkylating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents
Myeloablative Agonists
Antiprotozoal Agents
Antiparasitic Agents