Bioavailability of Amoxicillin Dissolved in Human Milk

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01435824
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 19, 2011
Last Update Posted : May 13, 2014
World Health Organization
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Shinya Ito, The Hospital for Sick Children

Brief Summary:
The investigators propose to study amoxicillin absorption in a 2-stage program that will progressively produce, for the first time, information leading to pediatric pharmacology recommendations for the administration to children of amoxicillin dissolved in human milk. The investigators study will enroll adult volunteers as number of blood extractions, volume of blood required and subject availability, among other issues, generate a number of ethical and logistical constraints that make it almost impossible to carry such an intensive sampling study in infants.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Healthy Drug: Human milk-dissolved amoxicillin Drug: Water-dissolved amoxicillin Phase 1

Detailed Description:

As recommended by the Expert Committee on Selection and Use of Essential Medicines, WHO (, oral solid formulations are the preferred forms of medicines for children, especially in developing countries, because of relatively inexpensive and less complicated manufacturing, transporting and storage processes. Whereas solid dosage forms are advantageous in these pharmaceutical logistics, administering solid formulations to infants and children is a challenging issue. Dissolving medicines in water may be acceptable, but safety of drinking water for infants in developing countries and water solubility of the drug itself are major concerns. These challenges are exemplified in the treatment of infectious diseases and diarrhea in infants. Commonly used drugs for infants in low income settings include antibiotics such as amoxicillin. Expert sources have suggested that drug administration in breast milk may be effective. However, little data is currently available to support the recommendation to administer medications dissolved in breast milk to infants.

The second stage of the project will use the information obtained from the first stage, combined with pre-existing data, to define a rational dosing schedule of the target drug dissolved in human milk for young children, using population PK modeling and simulation. This is a study in silico.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 16 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Bioavailability of Amoxicillin Dissolved in Human Milk: An Adult Volunteer Study as a First Step Towards Defining Drug Doses for Infants
Study Start Date : June 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 2013
Actual Study Completion Date : October 2013

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

U.S. FDA Resources

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Healthy Controls Drug: Human milk-dissolved amoxicillin
An amoxicillin suspension bottle containing 5 grams of amoxicillin (powder) will be resuspended in 60 ml of breast milk to have 100mL of a 50mg/mL suspension.
Drug: Water-dissolved amoxicillin
An amoxicillin suspension bottle containing 5 grams of amoxicillin (powder) will be resuspended in 60 ml of water to have 100mL of a 50mg/mL suspension.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Amoxicillin Plasma Concentrations [ Time Frame: Baseline, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 4 and 8 hours after dosing ]
    Amoxicillin plasma concentrations will be determined by HPLC-MS/MS and the parameters will be compared amongst groups.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 60 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Healthy adult volunteers (>18 and <60 years old)
  2. An approximate 50% of the volunteers will be female
  3. Body mass index (BMI) within 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m2
  4. Healthy according to medical history, vital signs and a brief physical examination as determined by the principal investigator/Sub-investigators.
  5. Systolic blood pressure between 100-140 mmHg, inclusive and diastolic blood pressure between 60-90 mmHg, inclusive, and heart rate between 50-100 bpm, unless deemed not clinically significant by the principal investigator/Sub- investigators.
  6. Capable of giving written informed consent prior to receiving study medication
  7. Smoking is not an exclusion criterion but we will identify smokers.
  8. Female participants will be required to fulfill at least one of the following:

    • Agree to avoid pregnancy and use medically acceptable method of contraception from at least 30 days prior to the study, during the study, and until 30 days after to the study has ended (last study procedure). Medically acceptable methods of contraception include hormonal patch, implant or injection intrauterine device, or double barrier method (condom with foam or vaginal spermicidal suppository, diaphragm with spermicidal). Complete abstinence alone can be used as a method of contraception. Oral contraceptives prior to the study are acceptable as a method of contraception, but an alternative method of contraception will be required during the study and after the study has ended.
    • Be surgically sterile for a minimum of 6 months
    • Post menopausal for a minimum of 1 year.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Known history of any clinically significant hepatic (e.g. hepatic necrosis, jaundice, hepatobiliary disease), renal, gastrointestinal (e.g. peptic ulcer), cardiovascular (e.g. angina, myocardial infarction), cerebrovascular, pulmonary, endocrine (e.g. diabetes, hypophosphatemia), immunological, musculoskeletal (e.g. rhabdomyolysis, myopathy), neurological, psychiatric, dermatological, or haematological disease or condition
  2. History of any clinically significant illness within 30 days prior to dosing
  3. History of any significant physical or organ abnormality
  4. Known history of:

    • Alcohol abuse or dependence within one year prior to drug administration
    • Drug abuse or dependence
    • Food allergies and/or presence of any dietary restrictions
    • Severe allergic reactions (e.g. anaphylactic reactions, angioedema)
  5. Participation in another clinical trial or receiving an investigational drug within 30 days of the study commencement or during the study
  6. Use of any prescription medication within 14 days prior to drug administration (except for hormonal contraceptives)
  7. Use of any over the counter medications )including herbal and/or dietary supplements and/or teas) within 24 hrs prior to drug administration (except for spermicidal/barrier contraceptive products)
  8. Any major surgery within 6 months prior to the start of the study
  9. History of allergy to amoxicillin, beta-lactams or amoxicillin excipients
  10. History of allergy to milk, or severe lactose intolerance
  11. Pregnancy or lactating
  12. Conditions associated with malabsorption
  13. Taking any form of antacids as they may increase the risk of orally transmitted viruses from human milk.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01435824

Canada, Ontario
The Hospital for Sick Children
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5V1X8
Sponsors and Collaborators
The Hospital for Sick Children
World Health Organization
Principal Investigator: Shinya Ito, MD The Hospital for Sick Children

Responsible Party: Shinya Ito, Division Head, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children Identifier: NCT01435824     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 1000021187
First Posted: September 19, 2011    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 13, 2014
Last Verified: May 2014

Keywords provided by Shinya Ito, The Hospital for Sick Children:
healthy adult volunteers
comparative bioavailability
breast milk
Amoxicillin Bioavailability in breast milk

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents