Effect of an Acute Bout of Exercise on Smoking Topography
Smokers will complete questionnaires and smoking behaviour will be examined. After abstaining from smoking for approximately 18 hours, they will be randomized to a moderate intensity exercise group or passive sitting group. Smoking behaviour (time to first puff) will be assessed following treatment.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Does an Acute Bout of Exercise Affect Smoking Topography?|
- Smoking topography [ Time Frame: One week ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Smoking topography will be assessed using the Clinical Research Support System (CReSS) Pocket, a computer-based, battery-powered, hand-held unit by Plowshare Technologies®. The CReSS Pocket has an orifice flow meter mouthpiece, and a pressure drop related to the flow rate that is produced when a puff is taken. From the flow rate, the CReSS derives puff count (number of puffs per cigarette), puff volume (the volume of carbon monoxide take in during each puff), puff duration (length of time for each puff), inter-puff interval (amount of time between puffs), and time to first puff.
- Withdrawal symptoms [ Time Frame: One week ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Changes in cravings, positive and negative affect, and mood and physical symptoms will be assessed using three questionnaires.
|Study Start Date:||August 2011|
|Study Completion Date:||December 2014|
|Primary Completion Date:||December 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Moderate Exercise Group
The moderate exercise condition will involve participants walking briskly (equivalent to moderate intensity) on a treadmill for 10 minutes. Moderate intensity exercise will be defined as 40-68% of the resting heart rate reserve. Heart rate (HR) will be monitored in participants using a Polar RS100 Heart Rate monitor to serve as a guide for participants to attain the appropriate intensity.
Behavioral: Moderate Exercise Group
Participants will be required to walk briskly (equivalent to moderate intensity) on a treadmill for 10 minutes.
Other Name: Physical activity
Active Comparator: Passive Sitting Group
The passive sitting condition will involve participants sitting passively for 10 minutes on a chair. Heart rate (HR) will be monitored in participants of the passive sitting group to help maintain group equivalency (with the moderate exercise condition) in regards to distraction effects and researcher contact.
Behavioral: Passive Sitting Group
Participants will be required to sit passively for 10 minutes on a chair.
Other Name: Sedentary
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Canadians (Canadian Cancer Society, in which cigarette smoking is responsible for 85% of these cases. Smoking topography, a key facet of smoking behaviour, can be subjectively or objectively measured by quantifying puff volume, maximum puff velocity, interpuff interval, puff duration, number of puffs per cigarette, and the time to smoke a single cigarette. Smoking topography can estimate exposure to carcinogenic toxins present in cigarette smoking (Djordjevic, Hoffman, & Hoffman, 1997). Evidence exists to support that exercise modifies smoking topography (Katomeri & Taylor 2006; Mikhail, 1983; Reeser, 1983; Zacny & Stitzer, 1985).
Recently, Faulkner and colleagues (2011; N = 18) were the first to implement a handheld smoking topography device (CReSS Pocket) to measure smoking behaviour in the context of an acute bout of exercise after a temporary period of abstinence. They found that brisk walking influences an individual's smoking topography. In specific, participants assigned to the exercise condition smoked less per puff and took shorter puff durations, compared to the passive sitting condition. Overall, smoking topographical studies require further investigation due to methodological flaws in order to allow for the objective collection of smoking behaviour data and improved external validity in a sufficiently powered study. Furthermore, the role of cravings, withdrawal and affect as potential mediators of topographical changes due to exercise is a novel area of research.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01431365
|Exercise and Health Psychology Laboratory- University of Western Ontario|
|London, Ontario, Canada|
|Principal Investigator:||Harry Prapavessis, Ph.D.||University of Western Ontario, Canada|