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Effect of Steroid for the Postoperative Swelling After Orthognathic Surgery

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: September 9, 2011
Last Update Posted: March 21, 2014
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
Postoperative swelling is one of most common concerns to plastic and oromaxillary surgeons after orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this study is to develop a steroid regimen protocol for minimizing postoperative facial swelling after orthognathic surgery.

Condition Intervention Phase
Swelling Drug: Dexamethasone"low-dose" Drug: Dexamethasone"high-dose" Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: The Effect of Steroid on Reducing Facial Swelling After Orthognathic Surgery

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Chang Gung Memorial Hospital:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Effect of Perioperative Steroid for the Postoperative Swelling After Orthognathic Surgery [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Measure of facial swelling will be performed using 3-dimensional photogrammetry. The 3d photo acquisition is non-invasive without radiation concern. The images will be taken before and after surgery to measure and compare the degree of facial swelling. Side effects from the steroid use are expected to be low under normal clinical dosage, but will also be monitored. Symptoms of wound infection, psychosis, and prolonged wound healing will be studied. There should be no long term complication, since the steroid use is one single dose.

Enrollment: 56
Study Start Date: August 2011
Study Completion Date: January 2013
Primary Completion Date: January 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Dexamethasone"low-dose"
Drug: Dexamethasone"low-dose"
Other Name: dexan
Experimental: Dexamethasone"high-dose"
Drug: Dexamethasone"high-dose"
15 mg
Other Name: dexan

Detailed Description:

Postoperative swelling is an annoying problem after orthognathic surgery. There are two reasons to minimize postoperative swelling. The first is a functional consideration. Orthognathic surgery is performed in oromaxillary area, and consequently swelling in this area can compromise airway. The second is esthetic one, as patients feel uncomfortable and embarrassing with a swollen face. Reducing facial swelling after orthognathic surgery helps to reduce airway complication and patient down time.

Several methods are used to reduce postoperative facial swelling, including controlled hypotension during operation, meticulous operative procedures, postoperative facial ice packing, head elevation, and suction drainage. Perioperative use of steroid has been applied for reduction of facial swelling after oral surgery and 3rd molar extraction. Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) and COX2 have been reported to be important enzymes for inflammatory process, and steroids inhibit their synthesis, consequently reducing postoperative edema. Steroid has also been used to decrease edema after orthognathic surgery, as well as to reduce pain, nausea and vomiting.

There were three randomized controlled studies looking at the effect of steroid on postoperative facial swelling after orthognathic surgery, separately by Dr. Weber et al, Peillon et al, and Munro et al. However, the results were controversial. The first two studies concluded that the steroid use could reduce facial swelling. The other one did not find significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Another limitation of the previous studies was that they all used two-dimensional or non-objective methods for evaluation of the amount of swelling, which could be less accurate. Three-dimensional photogrammetry has been introduced in recent years, and has obtained satisfactory results over the conventional methods. The investigators have experience of applying the device for facial surface study, and the accuracy has been validated in our imaging laboratory.

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of steroid for reduction of postoperative facial swelling determined by three-dimensional photographic method. 3dMD face scanner will be used. The 3-dimensional method makes no harm to patients. Patients will be seated during scanning and thus reducing possible inconvenience. There is no radiation hazard with this method. The image acquisition time is 2 milliseconds or less, and therefore no concern of motion artifacts. The first part of this study is to get information about the swelling curve after orthognathic surgery. 3dMD face scanning will be performed 5 times postoperatively every 12 hours after 24 hours of operation. When the postoperative timing of maximal facial swelling is obtained, the investigators will proceed to perform the second part of study, and the number of facial scanning is reduced. The second part of study involves recruiting 70 patients with prognathism. The patients will be carefully screened and selected by craniofacial surgeons. The patients will take preoperative and postoperative 3dMD image scanning. The recovery course and clinical outcome will be monitored. 3dMD face image data analysis will be performed for quantitative comparisons between the experimental and control groups.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   15 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • patients who receive LeFort I osteotomy of maxilla and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of mandible

Exclusion Criteria:

  • patients with local or systemic diseases
  • patients taking aspirin, steroid, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or having contraindications for steroids
  • patients with history of psychosis
  • patients with active or chronic infection
  • patients with active or latent peptic ulcer
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01431014

Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
Taoyuan, Taiwan, 333
Sponsors and Collaborators
Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
Principal Investigator: Lun-Jou Lo, MD Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
Study Chair: Hye-Young Kim, MD Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
  More Information

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Schaberg SJ, Stuller CB, Edwards SM. Effect of methylprednisolone on swelling after orthognathic surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1984 Jun;42(6):356-61.
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Bourke DL. Use of steroids during orthognathic surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1986 Jan;44(1):2-3.
Weber CR, Griffin JM. Evaluation of dexamethasone for reducing postoperative edema and inflammatory response after orthognathic surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1994 Jan;52(1):35-9.
Mocan A, Kişnişci R, Uçok C. Stereophotogrammetric and clinical evaluation of morbidity after removal of lower third molars by two different surgical techniques. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996 Feb;54(2):171-5.
Esen E, Taşar F, Akhan O. Determination of the anti-inflammatory effects of methylprednisolone on the sequelae of third molar surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999 Oct;57(10):1201-6; discussion 1206-8.
Seo K, Tanaka Y, Terumitsu M, Someya G. Efficacy of steroid treatment for sensory impairment after orthognathic surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004 Oct;62(10):1193-7.
Day CJ, Robert T. Three-dimensional assessment of the facial soft tissue changes that occur postoperatively in orthognathic patients. World J Orthod. 2006 Spring;7(1):15-26.
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Sotto-Maior BS, Senna PM, de Souza Picorelli Assis NM. Corticosteroids or cyclooxygenase 2-selective inhibitor medication for the management of pain and swelling after third-molar surgery. J Craniofac Surg. 2011 Mar;22(2):758-62. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318207f3fe.
Daniels SE, Desjardins PJ, Bird SR, Smugar SS, Tershakovec AM. Rofecoxib 50 mg and valdecoxib 20 or 40 mg in adults and adolescents with postoperative pain after third molar extraction: results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose studies. Clin Ther. 2006 Jul;28(7):1022-34.
Fleming PS, Flood TR. Steroid-induced psychosis complicating orthognathic surgery: a case report. Br Dent J. 2005 Nov 26;199(10):647-8.
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Responsible Party: Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01431014     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 99-2811-B-182A-003
CGMH-IRB-100-2191B ( Registry Identifier: CGMH IRB )
First Submitted: August 28, 2011
First Posted: September 9, 2011
Results First Submitted: February 6, 2014
Results First Posted: March 21, 2014
Last Update Posted: March 21, 2014
Last Verified: September 2011

Keywords provided by Chang Gung Memorial Hospital:
orthognathic surgery
3-dimensional photogrammetry

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Dexamethasone acetate
BB 1101
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Gastrointestinal Agents
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic Agents
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

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