Vorinostat in Children
|Children With Relapsed Solid Tumor, Lymphoma or Leukemia||Drug: zolinza/vorinostat||Phase 1 Phase 2|
|Study Design:||Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Phase I/II Intra-patient Dose Escalation Study of Vorinostat in Children With Relapsed Solid Tumor, Lymphoma or Leukemia|
- To determine a safe dose recommended (SDR) for the routine application of oral vorinostat (involving dose escalation) in children and adolescents (3-18 years) with relapsed/refractory solid tumor, lymphoma or leukemia. [ Time Frame: After finding the individual MTD this dose will be applied for 3 months. Patients without progression at first response evaluation will continue treatment for a maximum of 9 months. ]
A SDR is defined as the highest dose with no ≥ grade 3 toxicity according to CTC criteria (Dose Limiting Toxicity) in no more than 1/50 patient in this study.
Dose Limiting Toxicity (DLT) is defined as any grade 3 or 4 toxicity according the CTCAE version 4.0 and judged by the investigator as definitely, probably or possibly related to the study drug.
However, all DLTs will be subject to a second assessment by the Coordinating Investigator or a designated person.
- pharmacokinetics [ Time Frame: d 8, when maximum tolerated dose (MTD) ist reached and after 3 months treatment at MTD ]
Quantification of vorinostat concentration by mass spectrometry and enzymatically (AUC, Cmax, Cmin, tmax, Clearance, and t1/2).
The pharmacokinetic study will investigate the correlation between dose administered, plasma concentration, CSF concentrations, intracellular inhibition of HDAC activity and glucuronosyltransferase polymorphisms as well as observed treatment responses and toxicities.
Additionally:Intracellular HDAC activity in leukocytes using a fluorescence based enzymatic assay
- antitumor effectiveness [ Time Frame: three months after start of treatment with the individual MTD ]antitumor effectiveness of vorinostat as measured by treatment response rate
- association of the histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibiting activity with the dose administered, toxicity, and treatment response [ Time Frame: d8, after reaching the MTD and after 3 months treatment at MTD ]Intracellular vorinostat concentrations and pharmacologic target (HDAC) inhibition in peripheral leukocytes will be determined as a pharmacodynamic surrogate parameter. The latter assay is based on conversion of a fluorigenic acetyl-substrate by the enzymatic activity of HDACs which is specifically inhibited by vorinostat in a concentration dependent manner. The performance of the assay in patient plasma samples has been validated according to the FDA recommendations "Guidance for Industry Bioanalytical Method Validation".
- safety [ Time Frame: during dose escalation and during 3 months treatment at MTD every week; during prolongation of treatment and follow-up every second week ]
The analysis of safety assessments will include summaries of the following categories of safety and tolerability data collected for each subject:
- Drug Exposure(s)
- Adverse Events (AEs and SAEs, AEs leading to withdrawal)
- Clinical Laboratory Investigations
- Hemodynamics (vital signs)
- ECG Investigations
Frequencies of patients experiencing at least one AE will be displayed. Severity of the AEs will be graded according to the CTCAEv4.0. Summary tables will present the number of patients observed with AEs, the corresponding percentages and 95% CI.
- duration of response in responding patients [ Time Frame: every 3 months until progression of tumor ]MRI and MIBG (in case of neuroblastoma)
|Study Start Date:||March 2012|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||February 2018|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||November 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Relapsed or progressive solid tumors and leukemias have a very poor prognosis in children despite intense multimodal treatment protocols involving polychemotherapy, surgery, and radiation. Therefore, innovative treatment strategies targeting specific molecular mechanisms are urgently required. A novel class of compounds with promising anti-tumoral activities is histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitors. HDACs are key enzymes involved in regulation of chromatin-structure and function of several proteins, and aberrant activities of HDACs are found in many cancer cells. Pharmacological inhibition of HDACs causes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, differentiation, inhibition of clonogenic growth, and anti-angiogenic effects in numerous cancer cells. In addition, promising anti-tumoral activity has been shown in several pre-clinical pediatric tumor models such as neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, retinoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, ATRT, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Several HDAC inhibitors are now in Phase I-III clinical trials in adult patients demonstrating a good safety profile and promising anti-neoplastic activity. The first of these compounds, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat, Zolinza), was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Vorinostat showed linear pharmacokinetics, good oral bioavailability and a broad range of anti-tumor activity in a Phase I clinical trial including 73 adult relapsed tumor patients. The determined peak plasma levels were in the range of 658±439 ng/ml (corresponding to 2.5±1.7 µM). At these concentrations, anti-tumoral effects on pediatric cancer cells and leukemias have been documented in vitro. Furthermore, vorinostat passes the blood brain barrier in mice, thus making it a suitable compound for the treatment of brain tumors.
The aim of this study is to define a dose recommendation of vorinostat in pediatric oncology, to determine pharmacokinetics of vorinostat in children, determine response rates, safety and feasibility. The design is an open, multicenter Phase I/II trial. Children and adolescents (3-18 years) with relapsed or therapy-refractory solid tumor, lymphoma or leukemia following standard treatment protocols in pediatric oncology will be included. 50 patients will be recruited over 2 years. Vorinostat will be taken orally once per day on an outpatient basis and the dose will be escalated until the individual maximum tolerated dose is established. This dose will then be applied for 3 months, when tumor response will be evaluated. Patients without progression at first response evaluation will continue treatment for a maximum of 9 months. After end of treatment (EOT) follow-up evaluations will be performed for 3 months. Pharmacokinetic studies will be performed in plasma, and in optional cerebrospinal fluid samples. Biomarkers (BMP4, IL-6, IL10 induction following Vorinostat treatment, basal histone acetylation, HDACs and H23B in archived tumor samples) will be determined and correlated with treatment response.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01422499
|Clinic for Pediatric Oncology, Hematology, Immunology and Clinical Cooperation Unit Pediatric Oncology|
|Heidelberg, BW, Germany, 69198|
|Childrens's Hospital, Pediatric Oncology and Hematology|
|Augsburg, Germany, 86156|
|Prof. Hess Childrens's Hospital, Pediatric Oncology and Hematology|
|Bremen, Germany, 28205|
|University Childrens's Hospital, Pediatric Oncology and Hematology|
|Essen, Germany, 45122|
|University Children's Hospital, Clinic IV|
|Freiburg, Germany, 79106|
|Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology University Hospital Eppendorf (UKE)|
|Hamburg, Germany, 20246|
|University Children's Hospital, Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, MHH|
|Hannover, Germany, 30625|
|University Childrens's Hospital, Pediatric Oncology and Hematology|
|Jena, Germany, 07743|
|University Children's Hospital, Pediatric Oncology and Hematology|
|Köln, Germany, 50937|
|Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology University Children's Hospital|
|Münster, Germany, 48149|
|Principal Investigator:||Olaf Witt, Prof. Dr.||University Hospital Heidelberg and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ)|