Effect of an Acute Bout of Exercise on Smoking Satisfaction
Female and male smokers will complete questionnaires and smoking behavior will be examined. After abstaining from smoking for approximately 18 hours, they will be randomized to a moderate intensity exercise groups or passive sitting group. Smoking satisfaction and smoking behavior will be assessed following treatment.
The hypotheses detailed below are specific to the randomization of participants into the following 2 groups:
- Moderate exercise (Experimental condition; MEG)
- Passive sitting (Attention control condition; PSG)
Hypothesis 1: A bout of moderate intensity exercise will be associated with decreased smoking satisfaction after a temporary period of abstinence compared to a control condition.
Hypothesis 2: Smoking topographic measures will mediate the relationship between a bout of moderate intensity exercise and smoking satisfaction.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Does an Acute Bout of Exercise Affect Smoking Satisfaction?|
- Smoking satisfaction [ Time Frame: One week ]Smoking satisfaction will be assessed using the 12-item modified version of the Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (mCEQ; Cappelleri, Bushmakin, Baker, Merikle, Olufade & Gilbert, 2007).
- Smoking topography [ Time Frame: One week ]Smoking topography will be assessed using the Clinical Research Support System (CReSS) Pocket, a computer-based, battery-powered, hand-held unit by Plowshare Technologies. The CReSS Pocket has an orifice flow meter mouthpiece, and a pressure drop related to the flow rate that is produced when a puff is taken. From the flow rate, the CReSS derives puff count (number of puffs per cigarette), puff volume (the volume of carbon monoxide taken in during each puff), puff duration (length of time for each puff), inter-puff interval (amount of time between puffs), and time to first puff.
|Study Start Date:||August 2011|
|Study Completion Date:||April 2012|
|Primary Completion Date:||April 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Moderate Exercise Group
The moderate exercise condition will involve participants waking briskly (equivalent to moderate intensity) on a treadmill for 10 minutes. Moderate intensity exercise is defined as 40-68% of heart rate reserve (HRR). Heart rate (HR) will be monitored using a Polar RS100 Heart Rate monitor to serve as a guide for participants to attain the appropriate intensity.
Behavioral: Moderate Exercise Group
Participants will be required to walk briskly (equivalent to moderate intensity) on a treadmill for 10 minutes.
Other Name: Physical activity
Active Comparator: Passive Sitting Group
The passive sitting condition will involve participants sitting passively in a chair for 10 minutes. Heart rate (HR) will be monitored in participants of the passive sitting group to help maintain group equivalency (with the moderate exercise condition) with regards to distraction effects and researcher contact.
Behavioral: Passive Sitting Group
Participants will be required to sit passively on a chair for 10 minutes.
Other Name: Sedentary
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Canadians (Canadian Cancer Society (CCS), 2010). Cigarette smoking is responsible for 85% of these cases (CCS, 2007). Exercise has been shown to be an effective adjunct to pharmacological cessation strategies (Ussher, Taylor, & Faulkner, 2008). A recent systematic review concluded that a single bout of low to moderate intensity exercise can help regulate cravings, withdrawal symptoms and negative affect associated with quitting (Taylor, Ussher, & Faulkner, 2007).
Smoking satisfaction is an immediately reinforcing effect of nicotine. Smoking satisfaction may outweigh the temporally distant adverse health risks of smoking (Cappelleri, Bushmakin, Baker, Merikle, Olufade, & Gilbert, 2007). Varenicline, an alpha 4-beta-2 nAChR partial agonist, mimics the effect of nicotine by reducing cravings and withdrawal symptoms (Coe et al., 2005). A 12-week treatment period of varenicline has been shown to reduce smoking satisfaction (Jorenby et al., 2006). However, the effect of acute exercise on smoking satisfaction is not yet known.
Smoking topography is a key facet of smoking behaviour. Smoking behaviour can be subjectively or objectively measured by quantifying puff volume, maximum puff velocity, inter-puff interval, puff duration, number of puffs per cigarette and time to smoke a single cigarette. Smoking topography can estimate exposure to carcinogenic toxins present in cigarette smoking (Djordjevic, Hoffman, & Hoffman, 1997). Evidence exists to support that exercise modifies smoking topography (Katomeri & Taylor 2006; Mikhail, 1983; Reeser, 1983; Zacny & Stitzer, 1985).
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01417975
|The Exercise and Health Psychology Laboratory - The University of Western Ontario|
|London, Ontario, Canada|
|Principal Investigator:||Harry Prapavessis, Ph.D||University of Western Ontario, Canada|