Pilot and Feasibility Study of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Transfer for the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is an inherited disorder that results in defects of the blood and bone marrow. It affects boys because the genetic mistake is carried on the X chromosome. Normal people have blood cells called platelets that stop bleeding when blood vessels are damaged. Boys with WAS have low numbers of platelets that do not function correctly. Boys with WAS are thus at risk for severe life-threatening bleeding. A normal immune system is made of special blood cells called white blood cells, which protect against infection and also fight certain types of cancer. In WAS, these white blood cells don't work as well as they should, making these boys very susceptible to infections and to a form of blood cancer known as lymphoma. The abnormal white blood cells of patients with WAS also cause diseases such as eczema and arthritis. Although WAS can be mild, severe forms need treatment as early as possible to prevent life-threatening complications due to bleeding, infection and blood cancer.
Over the past decade, investigators have developed new treatments based on the investigators knowledge of the defective gene causing WAS. The investigators can now use genes as a type of medicine that will correct the problem in the patient's own bone marrow. The investigators call this process gene transfer. The procedure is very similar to a normal bone marrow transplant, in that the old marrow is killed off using chemotherapy, but is different because the patient's own bone marrow is given back after it is treated by gene transfer. This approach can be used even if the patient does not have any matched donors available and will avoid problems such as GVHD and rejection. The investigators wish to test whether this approach is safe and whether gene transfer will lead to the development of a healthy immune and blood system.
Biological: Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer
|Study Design:||Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: No masking
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Pilot and Feasibility Study of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Transfer for the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome|
- Safety of infusion of transduced cells [ Time Frame: 5 Years ]Safety of infusion of transduced cells as rescue of hematopoiesis after conditioning (hematopoietic recovery as assessed by absolute neutrophil count (ANC) above 0.5 x 109 /l for three consecutive days, achieved within 6 weeks following infusion).
- Engraftment of genetically corrected T cells [ Time Frame: 5 Years ]Engraftment of genetically corrected T cells in peripheral blood (as assessed by evidence of vector sequences in >1% of CD3+ T cells) at 6 months.
|Study Start Date:||July 2011|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||July 2031|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||July 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Gene transfer
Open label single arm study
Biological: Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer
Two procedures: 1) Bone marrow harvest from the patient's posterior iliac crests or collection of peripheral blood stem cells via apheresis procedure. 2) One time infusion of patient's transduced bone marrow cells.
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) (OMIM 301000) is a rare X-linked immunodeficiency caused by mutations in a single gene, WAS, mapping to Xp11.22-Xp11.3 and coding for the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) 1. WASP is a critical regulator of actin signaling with expression limited to hematopoietic cells, and thus is required for multiple functions including T cell activation, dendritic cell migration and podosome formation, and B cell terminal development and function. WAS is characterized by microthrombocytopenia, recurrent infections, eczema and associated with a high incidence of auto-immunity and of lymphoid malignancies. Classic or severe WAS, is generally observed in patients with nonsense mutations or insertions/deletions resulting in frameshift or splice-site mutations or missense mutations and resulting in unstable protein 2. With few exceptions, WASP-negative patients have classical disease. Affected patients have a severely reduced life expectancy.
Currently, the only curative option for WAS patients is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This treatment is most successful when an HLA-identical sibling or matched unrelated donor is available and results in correction of microthrombocytopenia and immune dysfunction, even when stable mixed chimerism occurs. However, even patients undergoing matched HSCT can suffer from considerable morbidity and mortality due to graft versus host disease (GVHD) and many patients lack an HLA-identical donor. The outcome of mismatched related HSCT is consistently poor with survival of approximately 50%. Gene transfer is an attractive alternative treatment for WAS. Successful gene transfer using autologous gene-corrected HSC would overcome clinical complications linked to GVHD and its treatment. Furthermore, in contrast to allogeneic HSCT, gene transfer would not be limited by the availability of compatible donors. Several lines of evidence indicate that partial reconstitution with gene corrected cells may be sufficient to ameliorate the disease.
We propose here a Pilot and Feasibility study of ex vivo gene transfer using a lentiviral vector (LV) to transduce autologous bone marrow derived CD34+ HSC. Cells will be infused into patients conditioned with cytoreductive chemotherapy. Our collaborating investigators in Europe have developed a LV encoding the human WAS cDNA under control of the WAS promoter and pseudotyped with the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus glycoprotein (VSVg) envelope. This w1.6_hWASP_WPRE (VSVg) LV (abbreviated as w1.6W) has been shown to be efficacious in both in vitro and in vivo preclinical models. Safety including cellular toxicity, insertional mutagenesis and tumor formation has been studied by a number of methods including: 1) a sensitive in vitro transformation assay, 2) toxicity studies in transduced human CD34+ cells, 3) examination of the insertional pattern in transduced murine cells, and 4) long-term observation and secondary transplant studies in mice. In the United States, we plan to enroll 5 boys with classic WAS who lack a matched related or unrelated donor. Parallel studies (not under our Investigational New Drug application) using the same LV produced in the same facility, Genethon, will be conducted in London, UK (5 subjects) and Paris, France (5 subjects). The primary objective will be to demonstrate feasibility and safety. The secondary objective will be to assess therapeutic efficacy.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01410825
|United States, Massachusetts|
|Children's Hospital Boston|
|Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02116|
|Principal Investigator:||Sung-Yun Pai, M.D.||Boston Children’s Hospital|