ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Comparing the Efficacy of Oral Opioids for Outpatient Acute Pain Management After ED Discharge Discharge

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01402375
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 26, 2011
Results First Posted : May 1, 2018
Last Update Posted : May 1, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Andrew Chang, MD, Montefiore Medical Center

Brief Summary:
There will be 3 randomized, double-blinded clinical trials to help determine which of commonly prescribed oral opioid combination is most effective in managing acute extremity pain after discharge from the adult emergency department. The first trial compares hydrocodone 5mg / acetaminophen 500mg to codeine 30mg/acetaminophen 300mg. The second trial compares oxycodone 5mg/acetaminophen 325mg to codeine 30mg/acetaminophen 300mg. The third trial compares oxycodone 5mg/acetaminophen 325 mg to hydrocodone 5mg/acetaminophen 325 mg.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Analgesia After ED Discharge for Extremity Injuries Drug: Hydrocodone (first trial) Drug: Codeine (first trial) Drug: Oxycodone (for second trial) Drug: Codeine (for second trial) Drug: Oxycodone (third trial) Drug: Hydrocodone (third trial) Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Eligible patients are those between the ages of 21 and 64 who present to the Emergency Department (ED) with a complaint of acute extremity pain of less than seven days duration in one or more extremities and for whom the clinician plans to discharge on an oral opioid for pain management. Patients will be excluded if they have ever taken methadone; have a chronic condition requiring frequent pain management such as sickle cell disease, fibromyalgia, or any neuropathy; report a history of an adverse reaction to any of the study medications; if they have taken prescribed opioids in the past 24 hours or if they report having ever taken recreational narcotics; if they have a medical condition that might affect their metabolism of opioid analgesics or acetaminophen; or if they take any medicine that might interact with one of the study medications. Patients will be referred by the attending physician or clinician and consent as well as the initial and follow-up data collections will be obtained by our team of trained bilingual (Spanish and English) salaried research associates who staff the ED 24 hours a day and 7 days a week.

In the first study, patients will be randomized to one of two experimental groups: hydrocodone 5mg / acetaminophen 500mg or codeine 30mg / acetaminophen 300mg. Randomization will be performed in blocks of 10 and determined by a sequence generated at http://www.randomization.com. The pharmacist working in an area inaccessible to ED staff will ensure proper blinding of the study by masking the medication and inserting it into unmarked gel capsules and filling any void with small amounts of lactose. A three-day supply (18 doses) of the blinded medications will be dispensed by the ED staff to the patient in the order determined by randomization accompanied by instructions to use one tablet of the medication every 4 hours as needed for pain and to avoid use of any other analgesics.

Using a power of 80%, a significance criterion of 0.5, and an estimated delta of 1.3 NRS units, a sample size of 85 patients per group. In order to account for those that do not end up taking the medicine, it is estimated that 120 patients per group will have to be enrolled.

Data will be collected on a standardized data collection instrument, entered by a trained data clerk, and reviewed and audited for accuracy and completeness. The investigators will calculate descriptive statistics for all variables: frequencies, means and standard deviations, medians and IQR, and proportions. Chi-square tests will be used to test differences between dichotomous variables, t-tests will be used to test mean differences. Multivariate models will be used if there are background variables that are unevenly distributed between the two groups. Variables associated with group membership with probability of 0.20 or less will be included in OLS multivariate regression or logistic regression models in order to test the role of group membership while accounting for chance baseline disparities. Interaction terms will be tested and dropped from the models if they were not statically significant at the 0.05 level. SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL.) will be used to conduct all data analyses.

The second trial will be identical to the first trial with the exception of one of the study drugs, which will be oxycodone 5mg / acetaminophen 325 mg which will be compared to codeine 30mg / acetaminophen 300mg.

The third trial will be identical to the first and second trials with the exception of study drugs. This study will use oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325mg and hydrocodone 5mg/acetaminophen 325mg.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 720 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
Official Title: Comparing the Efficacy of Oral Opioids for Outpatient Acute Pain Management After ED Discharge
Actual Study Start Date : January 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2014
Actual Study Completion Date : November 2014

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Hydrocodone (first trial)
Hydrocodone 5mg / Acetaminophen 500mg. Patients instructed to take 1 dose every 4 hrs as needed for pain.
Drug: Hydrocodone (first trial)
Patients will take 1 dose of Hydrocodone 5mg / Acetaminophen 500mg every 4 hours as needed for pain
Other Name: Vicodin (Hydrocodone 5mg / Acetaminophen 500mg)
Active Comparator: Codeine (first trial)
Codeine 30mg / Acetaminophen 300mg. Patients instructed to take 1 dose every 4 hrs as needed for pain.
Drug: Codeine (first trial)
Patients will take 1 dose of Codeine 30 mg / Acetaminophen 300 mg every 4 hours as needed for pain
Other Name: Tylenol # 3 (Codeine 30 mg/Acetaminophen 300 mg)
Experimental: Oxycodone (for second trial)
Oxycodone 5mg / Acetaminophen 325mg. Patients instructed to take 1 dose every 4 hrs as needed for pain.
Drug: Oxycodone (for second trial)
Patients will take 1 dose of Oxycodone 5 mg / Acetaminophen 325 mg every 4 hours as needed for pain
Other Name: Percocet (Oxycodone 5mg/Acetaminophen 325 mg)
Active Comparator: Codeine (for second trial)
Codeine 30mg / Acetaminophen 300mg. Patients instructed to take 1 dose every 4 hrs as needed for pain.
Drug: Codeine (for second trial)
Patients will take 1 dose of Codeine 30 mg / Acetaminophen 300 mg every 4 hours as needed for pain
Other Name: Tylenol # 3 (Codeine 30 mg/Acetaminophen 300 mg)
Experimental: Oxycodone (third trial)
Oxycodone 5mg / Acetaminophen 325 mg. Patients instructed to take 1 dose every 4 hours as needed for pain.
Drug: Oxycodone (third trial)
Patients will take 1 dose of Oxycodone 5mg / Acetaminophen 325 mg every 4 hours as needed for pain
Other Name: Oxycodone 5mg / Acetaminophen 325 mg
Active Comparator: Hydrocodone (third trial)
Hydrocodone 5mg / Acetaminophen 325 mg. Patients instructed to take 1 dose every 4 hours as needed for pain.
Drug: Hydrocodone (third trial)
Patients will take 1 dose of Hydrocodone 5 mg / Acetaminophen 325 mg every 4 hours as needed for pain.
Other Name: Hydrocodone 5mg / Acetaminophen 325 mg



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Difference in Pain Intensity Score Before and After Last Dose. [ Time Frame: 2 hrs ]
    Pain intensity is measured on the numerical rating scale (NRS) from 0 ("no pain") to 10 ("worst pain imaginable"). The difference in pain score is calculated by subtracting the average score 2 hours after pain medication is taken from the average pain score immediately before the pain medication is taken.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall Satisfaction With the Pain Medicine [ Time Frame: 24 hrs ]
    Overall satisfaction with the oral opioid pain medication at 24 hours after discharge using a Likert scale. Patients will be asked to describe their overall experience as being very satisfied, satisfied, unsatisfied or very unsatisfied with the study medication.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years to 64 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • patient has complaint of acute extremity pain (less than 7 days duration)
  • clinician plans to discharge on oral pain medication

Exclusion Criteria:

  • patients on methadone
  • chronic pain condition such as sickle cell anemia or fibromyalgia
  • history of adverse reaction to one of the study medications
  • taken prescribed opioids in the past 24 hrs
  • have a medical condition that might alter the metabolism of one of the study medications (i.e. hepatitis, renal insufficiency, thyroid disease, Adrenal disease)
  • Take a medication that might interact with one of the study medications

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01402375


Locations
United States, New York
Montefiore Medical Center
Bronx, New York, United States, 10467
Sponsors and Collaborators
Montefiore Medical Center
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Andrew Chang, MD Montefiore Medical Center

Responsible Party: Andrew Chang, MD, PI, Montefiore Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01402375     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 11-02-066
First Posted: July 26, 2011    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: May 1, 2018
Last Update Posted: May 1, 2018
Last Verified: April 2018

Keywords provided by Andrew Chang, MD, Montefiore Medical Center:
Pain Management
Emergency Medicine
Extremity Injuries

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Acute Pain
Pain
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System Diseases
Signs and Symptoms
Acetaminophen
Oxycodone
Hydrocodone
Codeine
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Analgesics
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antipyretics
Analgesics, Opioid
Narcotics
Central Nervous System Depressants
Antitussive Agents
Respiratory System Agents