Sleep Apnea in Early to Mid-Stage Alzheimer's Disease (AZAP)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is much more common in the elderly than in the young; the latest studies show prevalence between 45% and 62% in individuals over 60. It is even higher in patients with dementia such as Alzheimer patients.
Several trials in elderly patients showed modified cognitive functions, particularly executive and attentional functions, in patients with respiratory sleep disorder. However the benefit of CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) ventilation for Alzheimer patients is still controversial, as there are few studies documenting its effects on dementia patients' cognitive abilities, and clinicians appear reluctant to prescribe this type of treatment.
The investigators must keep in mind that Alzheimer patients suffer significant sleep disorders; advanced- stage patients spend 40% of the night awake and are drowsy a large part of the day. In dementia patients, sleep disorder is a major cause of hospitalization and institutionalization. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in this population is estimated at over 50%, and appears to be higher the more advanced the dementia. Trials on obstructive sleep apnea syndromes in Alzheimer patients show significatively improved scores on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), as well as satisfactory treatment tolerance. However, any impact on cognitive abilities has yet to be demonstrated.
In addition, cardiovascular pathologies such as arterial hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and strokes are strongly correlated to OSA. In light of its consequences on morbidity and mortality, OSA should be considered a public health issue.
In this context, the investigators wish to address the impact of CPAP treatment implementation on the cognitive parameters of patients diagnosed with OSA, particularly on their executive functions. This should provide evidence for mid-term assessment of the benefits of CPAP in caring for elderly patients with dementia.
In light of the prevalence of obstructive sleep pathologies in elderly patients reported in various studies and of the potential impact of CPAP treatment on cognitive abilities, the investigators propose a study to evaluate the impact of OSA treatment on elderly Alzheimer patients' cognitive abilities, particularly on their executive functions.
Executive functions are a rather heterogenous group of high-level cognitive processes which enable individuals to adopt a flexible, context-appropriate behavior. They also include planning abilities, working memory, cognitive control, abstract thought, rule learning, selective attention, motor response selection, etc... Executive functions are mainly associated to the functioning of the brain's frontal lobes, although subcortical structures also play a role. When the executive functions are affected by disease, daily life is significantly impeded as the individual becomes unable to perform complex tasks or regulate his/her behavior. Many tests can help evaluate these functions in dementia patients. A number of "ecological" tests, such as the zoo map test from the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) arsenal, are quite relevant for evaluating executive functions.
This project aims to improve the daily life of Alzheimer patients with sleep apnea by improving their executive cognitive functions through CPAP treatment.
According to the Paquid's trial, there are 12,400 Alzheimer patients in the French Loire department.  The study population will therefore be recruited in the "La Charité" center of CHU Saint-Etienne. The target population is older individuals (≥ 65) suffering from cognitive disorders similar to Alzheimer's disease.
OSA will be diagnosed based on polysomnography, on an outpatient basis. Apnea patients will receive CPAP treatment for 4 months, which is the minimum duration required to implement and accept treatment, and to measure its impact on patients' neurocognitive abilities.
|Early Onset Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer Disease Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes||Device: CPAP Treatment Device: No treatment|
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
|Official Title:||Sleep Apnea in Early to Mid-Stage Alzheimer's Disease: What Impact of Treatment on the Cognitive Functions of Elderly Patients With Memory Loss?|
- Impact of the CPAP treatment on cognitive functions [ Time Frame: At 4 Months ]BADS zoo map scores : subjects are tested in two experimental settings, formulation and execution. The total execution time is the time taken to perform the task assigned in both conditions; the error score measures mistakes made during the test.
- Rate of apnea/hypopnea events per hour (AHI/h) [ Time Frame: Each month from Day 1 to Month 4 ]This secondary outcome measure is only for the treated group by CPAP.
- Impact of CPAP treatment on neuropsychological evaluation parameters [ Time Frame: At 4 months ]
This impact is measured by theses following neuropsychological tests : MMS, clock drawing test, five-word test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Similarities Test (WAIS-R subtest), Coding test (WAIS-III subtest), digit and visual span tasks (forward and backward) from WAIS III, alphabetical and categorical verbal fluency tasks, part A and B of the Trail Making Test, and Stroop test.
The consideration of these tests separately has no interest. The sum of these tests is important.
- Impact of the CPAP treatment on Quality of Life [ Time Frame: At 4 months ]It measured by the QOL-AD questionnaire
|Study Start Date:||December 2010|
|Study Completion Date:||June 2014|
|Primary Completion Date:||June 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)detected at the inclusion visit by a polysomnography
Device: CPAP Treatment
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome will be treated by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) at home during all 4 months all nights.
Patient without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)detected at the inclusion visit by a polysomnography
Device: No treatment
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01400542
|CHU de Saint-Etienne|
|Saint-etienne, France, 42000|
|Principal Investigator:||Emilie ACHOUR, MD||CHU de Saint-Etienne|