Primary Outcome Measures:
- Diet [ Time Frame: 0, 3, 6, and 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Research suggests that satiation processes in obese patients may be impaired, possibly resulting in excessive energy intake and poorer weight loss outcomes. One factor that may contribute to disruption of satiation processes and related overconsumption is dietary variety. Additionally, food cravings for restricted foods are believed to contribute to poor compliance to diets, and in controlled feeding studies, food cravings are the most frequently provided reason for poor dietary adherence. Interestingly, several investigations have found that cravings decrease when individuals follow a very-low-calorie or monotonous diet (9-11). Thus, reductions in the variety of the diet may also reduce food cravings, and assist in dietary adherence. It is also possible that the type of surgical procedure performed may influence changes in dietary variety, and consequently food cravings. To date, few studies have analyzed bariatric surgery patients' selection of foods within specific food groups and no study has examined the variety of foods consumed within food groups. Changes in food group variety which facilitate improvements in regulation of energy intake and body weight among obese individuals after behavioral weight loss may have a similar impact in patients who undergo bariatric surgery. Additionally, no studies have examined the relationship between changes in dietary variety and food cravings, and how these factors may be related to weight loss outcomes in any population.
To examine by surgery type(Roux-En-Y gastric bypass [RYGB], laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding [LAGB], vertical sleeve gastrectomy [VSG])
- changes in dietary variety from pre- to post-bariatric surgery at 3, 6, and 12-months
- changes in variety of high-energy-dense foods and changes in cravings of high-energy-dense foods at 3, 6, and 12 months and
- changes in variety of high-energy-dense and low-energy-dense foods and changes in energy intake and weight loss at 3, 6, and 12 months.