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PPSV23 Pneumococcal Vaccine in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01381367
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 27, 2011
Last Update Posted : June 27, 2011
Information provided by:
Far Eastern Memorial Hospital

Brief Summary:
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, which are associated with morbidity, mortality, and higher health-care cost. In addition, recently high daily dose of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy became more evident to be beneficial in moderate-to-severe COPD patients, but excess risk of pneumonia shown in database analysis was worried about by primary physicians. The use of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPSV23) has protective efficacy to eliminate infection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from previous studies. If the use of PPSV23 can reduce the incidence of pneumonia or exacerbations in COPD patients using high daily dose of ICS, the benefit of ICS can be preserved and risk of pneumonia can be reduced. However, there is only limited data supporting this hypothesis. In this study, the investigators will conduct a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy of PPSV23 in severe COPD patients using high daily dose of ICS.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Biological: PPSV23 pneumococcal vaccine (Pneumovax®) Drug: Normal Saline Phase 4

Detailed Description:

Exacerbations are a common feature in moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Morbidity, mortality and health-care costs of these patients largely result from exacerbations. The most common causes of an exacerbation are infection of tracheobronchial tree. Among them, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequently isolated organism, accounting for 5-25% patients of COPD, while it is also the most commonly identified cause in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for 16.5-38.9% of CAP patients.

In recent years, widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has became a major global concern, especially in Taiwan, one of the highest levels of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in the world. Therefore, primary prevention by vaccination is encouraged for those high-risk patients with COPD. The currently available adult pneumococcal vaccine consists of the capsular polysaccharide of 23 different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (PPSV23). The antibodies produced in response to this polysaccharide can provide protection by inducing host immune cells to kill or to opsonize bacteria for phagocytosis.

Until now, few studies have been designed to specifically examine vaccine efficacy in COPD patients. Among 3 available randomized controlled trials, only one study involving 596 patients found, from post-hoc analyses, some protective efficacy for pneumonia in patients of < 65 years of age and of an FEV1 < 40% predicted. Based on above evidence (only limited body of data), the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2006 Guideline has recommended the PPSV23 inoculation as evidence B.

By the way, in comparison to placebo and the single components, a superior control by means of the inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) fixed combination therapy has been demonstrated for significant clinical improvement in moderate-to-severe COPD patients, except mortality, by meta-analysis and large prospective studies (TORCH [Towards a Revolution in COPD Health] trial and INSPIRE [Investigating New Standards for Prophylaxis in Reduction of Exacerbations] trial). However, those database indicated that high daily dose of ICS (fluticasone propionate at a dose of 500-1000mcg daily) was associated with an excess risk of pneumonia, which doubles the pneumonia incidence in patients not receiving ICS. The immunogenicity of PPSV23 in COPD patients using systemic steroid was demonstrated but the clinical efficacy of vaccination has not been investigated.

From above-mentioned background, if the use of PPSV23 can reduce the incidence of pneumonia or exacerbations in COPD patients using high daily dose of ICS, the benefit of ICS can be preserved and risk of pneumonia can be reduced. For primary physicians, this hypothesis, if true, is very beneficial. So, in this study, the investigators want to conduct a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy of PPSV23 in COPD patients using high daily dose of ICS.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 38 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Phase 4 Study of PPSV23 Pneumococcal Vaccine in COPD Patients Using High Daily Dose of Inhaled Corticosteroid
Study Start Date : February 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2011
Actual Study Completion Date : June 2011

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: COPD Lung Diseases

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Vaccine
Enrolled COPD patients receiving PPSV23 pneumococcal vaccine
Biological: PPSV23 pneumococcal vaccine (Pneumovax®)
The adult anti-pneumococcal vaccine was a 23-polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine (Pneumovax®, Aventis Pastuer MSD), 0.5 ml of which was given subcutaneously. Duration of the efficacy is about 4-5 years.
Other Name: Pneumovax®, Aventis Pastuer MSD

Placebo Comparator: Normal saline
Enrolled COPD patient receiving placebo normal saline
Drug: Normal Saline
normal saline, 0.5ml given subcutaneously

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. the incidence of pneumonia and exacerbations [ Time Frame: 1 year ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. time to the first episode of pneumonia or exacerbation [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
  2. change in lung function (post-bronchodilator FEV1, FVC) [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
  3. all cause mortality [ Time Frame: 1 year ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. no previously vaccination with PPSV23,
  2. a clinical diagnosis of severe COPD which is defined according to the GOLD 2006 guideline (11): FEV1/FVC < 70%, FEV1 reversibility test < 200 ml, and FEV1 < 50% of predicted,
  3. current or past exposure of smoking,
  4. no exacerbation in the month prior to enrollment,
  5. age < 65 years,
  6. using high daily dose of ICS (budesonide > 800-1600 mcg/day or fluticasone > 500-1000 mcg/day),
  7. providing written informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Patients are excluded from the study if they are pregnant, or have immunosuppressed status (known current neoplasm, renal insufficiency in dialysis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, severe hepatic impairment, hypogammaglobulinemia, anatomical or functional asplenia).
  2. Asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and severe sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis are also excluded by pulmonary function study and chest imaging before patient's enrollment.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01381367

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Far Eastern Memorial Hospital
Pan-Chiao, Taipei County, Taiwan, 220
Sponsors and Collaborators
Far Eastern Memorial Hospital
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Principal Investigator: Ming-Tzer Lin, MD Far Eastern Memorial Hospital

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Responsible Party: Ming-Tzer Lin, Chest Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hosptial Identifier: NCT01381367     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: FEMH-97-C-037
First Posted: June 27, 2011    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 27, 2011
Last Verified: June 2011
Keywords provided by Far Eastern Memorial Hospital:
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Inhaled corticosteroid
Pneumococcal vaccine
Acute exacerbation
High-dose daily inhaled corticosteroid usage
Efficacy of the PPSV23 pneumococcal vaccine
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Lung Diseases
Lung Diseases, Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs