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Trial record 1 of 1 for:    A5274
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REMEMBER: Reducing Early Mortality & Morbidity by Empiric Tuberculosis (TB) Treatment (REMEMBER)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01380080
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 27, 2011
Results First Posted : February 23, 2016
Last Update Posted : January 29, 2021
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
AIDS Clinical Trials Group

Brief Summary:

People with HIV have a high chance of becoming infected with TB, especially when they live in areas where TB infection is common. It can be difficult to diagnose TB in people who need to start HIV treatment right away. Within about 6 months after starting HIV treatment, some of these people can become very sick with TB and can even die from it.

This study was being done in people who were starting HIV treatment and who lived in areas where the TB infection rate is high. The purpose of this study was to test an experimental approach to TB treatment to see if it is better than the usual approach. The experimental approach was to start TB treatment at the same time as HIV treatment, even when TB infection had not been found. The usual approach was to start TB treatment only if TB infection was found.

In this study, half of the people started TB treatment at the same time as they started their HIV treatment. The other half started TB treatment only if TB infection was found.

The study also tested how safe and effective it was to start TB treatment at about the same time as HIV treatment even when TB infection had not been found. The study collected information about diet, whether (and when) people in the study became sicker or died, how well their HIV was controlled, how they were feeling, how they were taking their medications, whether it mattered where they lived or what kind of HIV and TB care was standard, how many people were diagnosed with TB while in the study, and how the cost of the two treatment options on a national level could be compared.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
HIV Infection Drug: Atripla (r) Drug: Efavirenz Drug: Truvada Drug: Rifampin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide/ethambutol FDC Drug: Rifampin/isoniazid FDC Drug: Isoniazid Phase 4

Detailed Description:

This was a randomized, open-label, phase IV strategy trial for participants from resource-limited settings (RLS) who presented with advanced HIV disease and no probable or confirmed tuberculosis (TB), and who were initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART).

Participants were randomized to one of two strategy arms: immediate, empiric TB treatment (Empiric arm) or local standard of care TB treatment (IPT arm).

Randomization was balanced by clinical trial unit and stratified according to CD4+ T cell count (<25 vs. ≥25 cells/mm^3) and presence of any of the following prognostic factors: reportable hospitalization within the past 30 days, BMI <18.5 kg/m^2, or anemia (hemoglobin <8 g/dl).

Participants were followed for 96 weeks. Participants attended study visits at screening, enrollment, and weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 48. Signs and symptoms, ART modifications, concomitant medications, and clinical events as defined by AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Appendix 60 were collected at each visit. Blood was collected for CD4 and HIV-1 RNA at study entry, weeks 4, 24 and 48, and blood for safety laboratories (liver function, hematology, and renal function) was collected at all visits except week 1. A sputum sample was collected and stored at study entry. Phone contact was conducted at weeks 60, 72, 84 and 96 to obtain information about vital status, reportable hospitalization, TB status (including screening and follow-up), TB and HIV treatment modifications, and quality of life.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 851 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Reducing Early Mortality and Early Morbidity by Empiric Tuberculosis Treatment Regimens (REMEMBER)
Actual Study Start Date : October 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : April 2016

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Arm A: Empiric
Study treatment for Arm A participants is the strategy of initiating study-provided or other FDA-approved or tentatively approved antiretroviral treatment as soon as possible following randomization and within no more than 3 days following randomization plus a 4-drug anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) regimen (defined as rifampin/isoniazid/ethambutol/pyrazinamide) as soon as possible following randomization and within no more than 7 days following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. After 2 months (or 8 weeks), the 4-drug ATT will be followed with 4 months (or 16 weeks) of 2-drug ATT (defined as rifampin/isoniazid). All participants will be followed through week 96. Drug provision by or through the study will be through week 48 only
Drug: Atripla (r)
Patients are administered one tablet of Efavirenz 600 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg (EFV/FTC/TDF, Atripla) to taken be taken orally once daily at bedtime without food.

Drug: Efavirenz
Participants will take one 600 mg tablet administered orally once daily without food.
Other Name: EFV

Drug: Truvada
Participants will take one tablet of Emtricitabine 200mg/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300mg (FTC/TDF, Truvada) administered orally once daily with or without food.

Drug: Rifampin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide/ethambutol FDC
Participants will be administered Rifampin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide/ethambutol FDC tablets orally, once daily; dose by weight as determined in Table 5.1-1 of the protocol, for the first 8 weeks.

Drug: Rifampin/isoniazid FDC
Participants will be administered rifampin/isoniazid FDC tablets orally, once daily; dose by weight as determined in Table 5.1-1 in the protocol, for 16 weeks following the first 8 weeks.

Experimental: Arm B: IPT
Study treatment for Arm B participants is the strategy of initiating study-provided or other FDA-approved or tentatively approved antiretroviral therapy as soon as possible following randomization and within no more than 3 days following randomization and of initiating anti-TB treatment (ATT) only when indicated according to local standard practice and at the discretion of the site investigator. All participants will be followed through week 96. Drug provision by or through the study will be through week 48 only. Pyridoxine is provided by the sites to all participants while they are receiving isoniazid (INH).
Drug: Atripla (r)
Patients are administered one tablet of Efavirenz 600 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg (EFV/FTC/TDF, Atripla) to taken be taken orally once daily at bedtime without food.

Drug: Efavirenz
Participants will take one 600 mg tablet administered orally once daily without food.
Other Name: EFV

Drug: Truvada
Participants will take one tablet of Emtricitabine 200mg/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300mg (FTC/TDF, Truvada) administered orally once daily with or without food.

Drug: Isoniazid
INH 300 mg orally once daily




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Cumulative Probability of Death or Unknown Vital Status by Week 24 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 24 ]

    The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative probability of death or unknown vital status by week 24.

    The vital status was considered unknown at week 24 if a participant prematurely discontinued from the study before week 24 and no vital status was obtained at week 48.



Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Cumulative Probability of Death by Week 24 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 24 ]
    The Kaplan-Meier estimate of cumulative probability of death by week 24

  2. Cumulative Probability of First AIDS Progression by Week 96 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 96 ]
    The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative probability of first AIDS progression which was defined as the identification of a new World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 or 4 condition

  3. Cumulative Probability of Death or AIDS Progression by Week 24 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 24 ]
    The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative probability of death or AIDS progression by week 24. AIDS progression was defined as new WHO stage 3 or 4 conditions occurred after study entry.

  4. Proportion of Participants With HIV-1 RNA Level <400 Copies/mL [ Time Frame: At weeks 0, 4, 24, and 48 ]
    Proportion of participants with HIV-1 RNA level <400 copies/mL.

  5. CD4+ T-cell Count [ Time Frame: At weeks 0, 4, 24, and 48 ]
    The absolute levels of CD4+ T-cell counts (cells/mm^3)

  6. CD4+ T-cell Count Change From Baseline [ Time Frame: Weeks 0, 4, 24 and 48 ]
    Change was calculated as the CD4+ T-cell count at the later weeks (4, 24 and 48) minus the baseline (week 0) CD4+ T-cell count.

  7. Time to Initiation of TB Treatment by Week 96 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 96 ]
    Median time to TB treatment initiation since study entry

  8. Proportion of Participants With TB Diagnosis by Week 96 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 96 ]
    Proportion of participants with TB diagnosis per current ACTG Diagnosis Appendix 60 by week 96

  9. Proportion of Participants With at Least One New Grade 3 or 4 Adverse Event That is at Least a One-grade Increase From Baseline by Week 48 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 48 ]
    Proportion of participants with at least one new Grade 3 or 4 laboratory or sign or symptom that is at least a one-grade increase from baseline by Week 48. Grade 3=Severe, Grade 4=Life-Threatening according to DAIDS AE Grading Table (see references).

  10. Proportion of Participants With at Least One New Grade 3 or 4 Targeted Laboratory Value That is at Least a One-grade Increase From Baseline by Week 48 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 48. The lab events were collected at study entry, weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 48. ]

    Proportion of participants with at least one new Grade 3 or 4 that is at least a one-grade increase from baseline for the following targeted laboratory values by Week 48

    The targeted laboratory events include hemoglobin, serum creatinine, ALT and AST


  11. Proportion of Participants With Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) by Week 48 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 48 ]
    Proportion of participants with IRIS (using current ACTG definition Appendix 60, see References) by Week 48. IRIS in participants with TB and other opportunistic infections may occur shortly after the initiation of potent combination ART, particularly in participants with advanced HIV disease.

  12. Proportion of Participants With Reportable Hospitalization by Week 48 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 48 ]
    Proportion of participants with reportable hospitalization reported by Week 48

  13. Proportion of Participants Who Prematurely Discontinued Any Component of TB Treatment by Week 48 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 48 ]
    Proportion of participants with premature discontinuation of any component of TB treatment by Week 48

  14. Proportion of Participants Who Prematurely Discontinued Antiretroviral Therapy by Week 48 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 48 ]
    Proportion of participants with premature discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) by Week 48

  15. Cumulative Probability of Death or AIDS Progression by Week 48 [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 48 ]
    The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative probability of death or AIDS progression by week 48. AIDS progression was defined as new WHO stage 3 or 4 conditions occurred after study entry.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • HIV-1 infection
  • Willingness to start efavirenz-based ART as soon as possible and within no more than 3 days following randomization.
  • CD4+ cell count <50 cells/mm^3 obtained within 45 days prior to study entry
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (SGPT), and total bilirubin ≤ 2.5 X ULN within 30 days prior to study entry.
  • Creatinine clearance ≥30 mL/min either measured or estimated using values obtained within 30 days prior to study entry.
  • Results from a hepatitis B surface antigen test performed within 30 days prior to study entry.
  • Agreement not to participate in a conception process (e.g., active attempt to become pregnant or to impregnate, donate sperm, in vitro fertilization).
  • Female candidates of reproductive potential must have a negative serum or urine (15-25 mIU/mL) pregnancy test result within 7 days prior to study entry.
  • Female candidates of reproductive potential who are participating in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy must use two reliable methods of contraception while on study.
  • Karnofsky performance score >/= 30 at time of study entry.
  • Ability to swallow medications.
  • Ability and willingness of participant or legal guardian/representative to provide informed consent.
  • Intention to remain in the same general geographic region for the duration of study participation.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Presence of any confirmed or probable TB based on criteria listed in the current ACTG diagnosis appendix within 30 days prior to study entry and following completion of study-specific screening algorithm.
  • Use of single-dose NVP for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) within 24 months prior to study entry.
  • Use of prohibited medications within 30 days prior to study entry.
  • Known allergy/sensitivity or any hypersensitivity to components of study-required ART or TB treatment.
  • Current receipt of treatment for active TB or receipt of >14 days cumulative treatment for active TB within 96 weeks prior to study entry.
  • Receipt of >30 days cumulative of INH prophylaxis within 48 weeks prior to study entry.
  • Receipt at any time prior to study entry of >7 days cumulative treatment with any ARV or combination of ARVs (except for ARVs taken for any length of time during pregnancy for pMTCT, or ARVs taken for occupational exposure).
  • Active drug or alcohol use or dependence that, in the opinion of the site investigator, would interfere with adherence to study requirements.
  • Current Grade ≥2 neuropathy.
  • History of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB.
  • Within 12 weeks prior to entry, exposure to a household member or co-worker with known MDR TB.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01380080


Locations
Show Show 18 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Investigators
Layout table for investigator information
Study Chair: Mina C Hosseinipour, MD University of North Carolina Lilongwe CRS
Study Chair: Johnstone Kumwenda, MBChB, FRCP College of Med. JHU CRS
Additional Information:
Publications:
M. Hosseinipour, G. Bisson, S., et al. Empiric TB therapy does not decrease early mortality compared to Isoniazid Preventive therapy in adults with advanced HIV initiating ART: Results of ACTG A5274 (REMEMBER study). Program and abstracts of the 8th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and prevention; July 19-22, 2015; Vancouver, Canada. Abstract A-729-0105-03495
Johnstone Kumwenda, Amita Gupta, et al. Empiric TB therapy versus IPT in HIV-infected persons initiating ART (ACTG A5274 48 week results). Program and abstracts of the 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 22-25, 2016; Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract 16-1383
Gregory P. Bisson, Amita Gupta, et al. Urine LAM Testing in Advanced HIV-Infected Adults in a Trial of Empiric TB Therapy. Program and abstracts of the 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 22-25, 2016; Boston, Massachusetts. Abstract 16-1650

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: AIDS Clinical Trials Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01380080    
Other Study ID Numbers: ACTG A5274
1U01AI068636 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: June 27, 2011    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 23, 2016
Last Update Posted: January 29, 2021
Last Verified: January 2021
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Tuberculosis
Infections
Mycobacterium Infections
Actinomycetales Infections
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections and Mycoses
Efavirenz
Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Combination
Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Combination
Rifampin
Isoniazid
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol
Isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampin drug combination
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
Anti-HIV Agents
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antibiotics, Antitubercular