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Study of a Novel Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine in Healthy Children and Adolescents Aged 9 to 16 Years in Latin America

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01374516
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 16, 2011
Results First Posted : March 27, 2019
Last Update Posted : April 17, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Sanofi ( Sanofi Pasteur, a Sanofi Company )

Brief Summary:

The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of Sanofi Pasteur's CYD dengue vaccine in preventing symptomatic virologically-confirmed dengue cases for dengue-endemic areas of Latin America.

Primary Objective:

To assess the efficacy of CYD dengue vaccine after 3 vaccinations at 0, 6, and 12 months in preventing symptomatic virologically-confirmed dengue (VCD) cases, regardless of the severity, due to any of the four serotypes in children and adolescents aged 9 to 16 years at the time of inclusion.

Secondary Objectives:

  • To describe the efficacy of CYD dengue vaccine in preventing symptomatic VCD cases after the third dose to the end of the Active Phase, after at least 1 dose, and after 2 doses.
  • To describe the occurrence of hospitalized VCD cases and the occurrence of severe (clinically severe or as per World Health Organization (WHO) criteria) VCD cases, throughout the Surveillance Expansion Period (SEP) and throughout the trial (from Day 0 until the end of the study).
  • To describe the antibody response to each dengue serotype after Dose 2, after Dose 3, and 1 and 5 years after Dose 3.
  • To describe the occurrence of serious adverse events (SAEs), including SAEs of special interest in all participants throughout the trial period.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Dengue Fever Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Dengue Biological: Live, attenuated, dengue serotype 1, 2, 3, 4 virus Biological: Placebo: (NaCl) 0.9% solution Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Participants were randomized to either receive 3 injections of CYD dengue vaccine or a placebo at 0, 6, and 12 months.

A subset of participants from each country (N=2000) was also evaluated for reactogenicity and immunogenicity.

For each participant, the Active Phase of dengue case detection began after the first injection (Dose 1) and continued until 13 months after the third injection (Dose 3). It was assumed that 12 months of surveillance should result in the detection of a sufficient number of VCD cases to allow for an assessment of efficacy.

The Hospital Phase began after the Active Phase. Participants with a febrile illness and requiring hospitalization were screened for dengue until the end of the study.

Participants who consented to participate in the SEP were actively followed for dengue case detection (i.e. at least weekly contact and capturing any acute febrile illness, not just hospitalized febrile cases, as in the Active Phase). The SEP was designed to maximize the detection of symptomatic VCD (hospitalized or not) in order to describe CYD dengue vaccine efficacy and safety in preventing symptomatic dengue in the long-term. Participants who declined participating in the SEP continued surveillance as in the Hospital Phase until trial completion.

Symptomatic VCD cases occurring more than (>) 28 days after dose 3 (during the Active Phase) are defined as:

  • Acute febrile illness (i.e. temperature >=38 degree Celsius (°C) on at least 2 consecutive days)
  • Virologically confirmed by dengue Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and/or dengue non-structural (NS)1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Ag test.

Severity was assessed using a definition consistent with the 1997 WHO Classification Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever and by an independent Data Monitoring Committee (IDMC) severity criteria.


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 20869 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine in Healthy Children and Adolescents Aged 9 to 16 Years in Latin America
Actual Study Start Date : June 8, 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2014
Actual Study Completion Date : March 5, 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Dengue

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: CYD Dengue Vaccine Group
Participants were to receive 3 doses of CYD dengue vaccine; one each at 0, 6, and 12 months.
Biological: Live, attenuated, dengue serotype 1, 2, 3, 4 virus
0.5 mL, Subcutaneous
Other Name: CYD Dengue Vaccine

Placebo Comparator: Placebo Group
Participants were to receive a placebo vaccine at 0, 6, and 12 months.
Biological: Placebo: (NaCl) 0.9% solution
0.5 mL, Subcutaneous




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Symptomatic Virologically Confirmed Dengue (VCD) Cases Due to Any Serotype During the Active Phase Post-dose 3 Following Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: 28 days and up to 13 months post-injection 3 ]
    Symptomatic VCD cases were defined as occurrence of acute febrile illness (temperature >=38°C on at least 2 consecutive days) and confirmation of dengue virus infection by dengue reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or dengue non-structural (NS) protein 1 antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Vaccine efficacy was defined as 1 minus the ratio of density incidence due to any serotype after at least 1 dose in the CYD Dengue Vaccine Group over the density incidence of the Placebo Group.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Symptomatic VCD Cases Due to Any Serotype During the Active Phase Following Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: Day 0 up to 13 months post-injection 3 ]
    Symptomatic VCD cases were defined as occurrence of acute febrile illness (temperature >=38°C on at least 2 consecutive days) and confirmation of dengue virus infection by dengue RT-PCR and/or dengue NS 1 ELISA. Vaccine efficacy was defined as 1 minus the ratio of density incidence due to any serotype after at least 1 dose in the CYD Dengue Vaccine Group over the density incidence of the Placebo Group.

  2. Number of Symptomatic VCD Cases Due to Any Serotype Occurring 28 Days Post-dose 1 Following Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: 28 days post-injection 1 and up to 13 months post-injection 3 ]
    Symptomatic VCD cases were defined as occurrence of acute febrile illness (temperature >= 38°C on at least 2 consecutive days) and confirmation of dengue virus infection by dengue RT-PCR and/or dengue NS 1 ELISA. Vaccine efficacy was defined as 1 minus the ratio of density incidence due to any serotype after at least 1 dose in the CYD Dengue Vaccine Group over the density incidence of the Placebo Group.

  3. Number of Symptomatic VCD Cases Due to Any Serotype Post-dose 2 Following Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: 28 days post-injection 2 and up to 13 months post-injection 3 ]
    Symptomatic VCD cases were defined as occurrence of acute febrile illness (temperature >= 38°C on at least 2 consecutive days) and confirmation of dengue virus infection by dengue RT-PCR and/or dengue NS 1 ELISA. Vaccine efficacy was defined as 1 minus the ratio of density incidence due to any serotype after at least 1 dose in the CYD Dengue Vaccine Group over the density incidence of the Placebo Group.

  4. Number of Symptomatic VCD Cases Meeting World Health Organization (WHO) Criteria Throughout the Trial Due to Any Serotype Following Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: Day 0 to the end of study (up to 72 months) ]
    Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases were defined as number of participants with at least one symptomatic VCD episode meeting the 1997 WHO criteria. (a) Fever: acute onset, high (>= 38°C) and continuous, lasting 2 to 7 days and (b) any of the pre-listed hemorrhagic manifestations and laboratory findings of thrombocytopenia (platelet <=100 x 109/L) and plasma leakage as shown by hemoconcentration (hematocrit increased by 20% or more) or pleural effusion (seen on CXR) and/or ascites and/ or hypoalbuminemia. The first two clinical criteria plus thrombocytopenia and signs of plasma leakage are enough to establish a clinical diagnosis of DHF. DHF was graded as follows: Grade I: Fever accompanied by non-specific constitutional symptoms; the only hemorrhagic manifestation is a positive tourniquet test; Grade II: Spontaneous bleeding in addition to the manifestations of Grade I participants, usually in the form of skin and/or other hemorrhage.

  5. Number of Symptomatic VCD Cases Meeting WHO Criteria During the Surveillance Expansion Period Due to Any Serotype Following Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: From consent to participate in the Surveillance Expansion Period to the end of study (up to 72 months) ]
    The 1997 WHO criteria are: a) Fever: acute onset, high (>= 38°C) and continuous, for 2 to 7 days and (b) any of the following: thrombocytopenia (platelet <=100 x 109/L) and plasma leakage as shown by hematocrit increased by 20% or more or pleural effusion and/or ascites and/or hypoalbuminemia. The first two clinical criteria plus thrombocytopenia and signs of plasma leakage are enough to establish diagnosis of DHF. DHF was graded as follows: Grade I: Fever accompanied by non-specific constitutional symptoms; the only hemorrhagic manifestation is a positive tourniquet test; Grade II: Spontaneous bleeding in addition to the manifestations of Grade I participant, usually in the form of skin and/or other hemorrhages; Grade III: Circulatory failure manifested by rapid and weak pulse, narrowing of pulse pressure (20 mmHg or less) or hypotension, with the presence of cold clammy skin and restlessness; and Grade IV: Profound shock with undetectable blood pressure and pulse.

  6. Number of Hospitalized VCD Cases Throughout the Trial Due to Any Serotype Following Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: Day 0 up to the end of study (up to 72 months) ]
    Hospitalized VCD cases were defined as VCD confirmed by dengue RT-PCR and/or dengue NS 1 ELISA in participants with acute febrile illness (temperature >=38°C on at least 2 consecutive days) requiring hospitalization.

  7. Number of Hospitalized VCD Cases During the Surveillance Expansion Period Due to Any Serotype Following Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: From consent to participate in the Surveillance Expansion Period to end of the study (up to 72 months) ]
    Hospitalized VCD cases were defined as VCD confirmed by dengue RT-PCR and/or dengue NS 1 ELISA in participants with acute febrile illness (temperature >=38°C on at least 2 consecutive days) requiring hospitalization.

  8. Number of Clinically Severe VCD Cases Throughout the Trial Due to Any Serotype Following Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: Day 0 to the end of study (up to 72 months) ]
    The severity of VCD cases was assessed by an Independent Data monitoring Committee (IDMC) based on a medical review of cases and any of the following criteria:1) Platelet count <=100000 /μl and bleeding (tourniquet, petechiae or any bleeding) plus plasma leakage 2) Shock (pulse pressure <= 20 mmHg in a child, or hypotension [<= 90 mmHg] with tachycardia, weak pulse and poor perfusion) 3) Bleeding requiring blood transfusion 4) Encephalopathy i.e. unconsciousness or poor conscious state or fitting not attributable to simple febrile convulsion or focal neurological signs. Poor conscious state or unconsciousness must be supported by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 5) Liver impairment (AST >1000 IU/L or prothrombin time [PT] International normalized ratio [INR] >1.5) excluding other causes of viral hepatitis 6) Impaired kidney function (serum creatinine >= 1.5 mg/dL) 7) Myocarditis, pericarditis or clinical heart failure supported by CXR, echocardiography, ECG or cardiac enzymes.

  9. Number of Clinically Severe VCD Cases During the Surveillance Expansion Period Due to Any Serotype Following Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: From consent to participate in the Surveillance Expansion Period to the end of study (up to 72 months) ]
    The severity of VCD cases was assessed by an IDMC based on a medical review of cases and any of the following criteria:-1) Platelet count <=100000 /μl and bleeding (tourniquet, petechiae or any bleeding) plus plasma leakage 2) Shock (pulse pressure <= 20 mmHg in a child, or hypotension [<= 90 mmHg] with tachycardia, weak pulse and poor perfusion) 3) Bleeding requiring blood transfusion 4) Encephalopathy i.e. Unconsciousness or poor conscious state or fitting not attributable to simple febrile convulsion or focal neurological signs. Poor conscious state or unconsciousness must be supported by GCS score 5) Liver impairment (AST >1000 IU/L or PT INR >1.5) excluding other causes of viral hepatitis 6) Impaired kidney function (serum creatinine >= 1.5 mg/dL) 7) Myocarditis, pericarditis or clinical heart failure supported by CXR, echocardiography, ECG or cardiac enzymes.

  10. Percentage of Participants With Antibody Titers >=10 1/Dil Against Each Dengue Virus Serotype Before and Following Injection (Inj.) With CYD Dengue Vaccine or Placebo [ Time Frame: Pre-injection 1, 28 days post Injections 2 and 3, 13 months (Visit [V] 07) and 60 months (Visit [V] 12) post-injection 3 ]
    Dengue neutralizing antibody levels against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes (parental strains) were measured by the plaque reduction neutralization test in a pre-defined subset of participants.

  11. Geometric Mean Titers of Antibodies Against Each Dengue Virus Serotype Before and Following Injection With Either CYD Dengue Tetravalent Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: Pre-injection 1, 28 days post Injections 2 and 3, 13 months (V 07) and 60 months (V 12) post-injection 3 ]
    Geometric mean titers for each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes (parental strains) were assessed using the plaque reduction neutralization test in a pre-defined subset of participants.

  12. Number of Participants With Solicited Injection Site Reactions Following Any and Each Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: Within 7 days after each and any injection ]
    Solicited injection site reactions: Pain, Erythema, and Swelling. Grade 3 reactions (9-11 years): Pain: incapacitating, unable to perform usual activities; Erythema and Swelling, >= 50 mm. Grade 3 Solicited injection site reactions (12-16 years): Pain: significant, prevents daily activity; Erythema and Swelling, >100 mm.

  13. Number of Participants With Solicited Systemic Reactions Following Any and Each Injection With Either CYD Dengue Vaccine or a Placebo [ Time Frame: Within 14 days after each and any injection ]
    Solicited systemic reactions: Fever (Temperature), Headache, Malaise, Myalgia, and Asthenia. Grade 3 reactions: Fever: >= 39°C; Headache, Malaise, Myalgia, and Asthenia: significant, prevents daily activity.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   9 Years to 16 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Aged 9 to 16 years on the day of inclusion and resident of the site zone
  • Participant in good health, based on medical history and physical examination
  • Assent form or informed consent form has been signed and dated by the participant (based on local regulations), and informed consent form has been signed and dated by the parent(s) or another legally acceptable representative (and by an independent witness if required by local regulations)
  • Participant was able to attend all scheduled visits and comply with all trial procedures.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Participant was pregnant, or lactating, or of childbearing potential (to be considered of non-childbearing potential, a female must be pre-menarche for at least 1 year, surgically sterile, or using an effective method of contraception or abstinence from at least 4 weeks prior to the first vaccination until at least 4 weeks after the last vaccination).
  • Participation in another clinical trial investigating a vaccine, drug, medical device, or a medical procedure in the 4 weeks preceding the first trial vaccination
  • Planned participation in another clinical trial during the present trial period
  • Self-reported or suspected congenital or acquired immunodeficiency; or receipt of immunosuppressive therapy such as anti-cancer chemotherapy or radiation therapy within the preceding 6 months; or long-term systemic corticosteroids therapy (prednisone or equivalent for more than 2 consecutive weeks within the past 3 months)
  • Self-reported seropositivity for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection
  • Self-reported systemic hypersensitivity to any of the vaccine components, or history of a life-threatening reaction to the vaccine used in the trial or to a vaccine containing any of the same substances
  • Chronic illness that, in the opinion of the Investigator, is at a stage where it might interfere with trial conduct or completion
  • Receipt of blood or blood-derived products in the past 3 months, which might interfere with assessment of the immune response
  • Planned receipt of any vaccine in the 4 weeks following any trial vaccination
  • Deprived of freedom by administrative or court order, or in an emergency setting, or hospitalized involuntarily
  • Current alcohol abuse or drug addiction that may interfere with the participant's ability to comply with trial procedures
  • Identified as a site employee of the Investigator or study center, with direct involvement in the proposed study or other studies under the direction of that Investigator or study center, as well as a family member (i.e., immediate, husband, wife and their children, adopted or natural) of the site employees or the Investigator.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01374516


Locations
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Brazil
Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, 60430 270
Vitória, ES, Brazil, 29040 09
Goiania, GO, Brazil, 74675 020
Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, 79074 460
Natal, RN, Brazil, 59025 600
Colombia
Aguazul, Casanare, Colombia
Yopal, Casanare, Colombia
Girardot, Cundinamarca, Colombia
Acacias, Meta, Colombia
Armenia, Quindío, Colombia
Calarcá, Quindío, Colombia
La Tebaida, Quindío, Colombia
Montenegro, Quindío, Colombia
Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia
Honduras
Tegucigalpa, Municipalidad Del Distrito Central, Honduras
Mexico
Temixco, Morelos, Mexico
Municipio De Cd. Mante, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Veracruz Puerto, Veracruz, Mexico
Tizimin, Yucatán, Mexico
Valladolid, Yucatán, Mexico
Puerto Rico
Guayama, Puerto Rico, 00784
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 00918
Sponsors and Collaborators
Sanofi Pasteur, a Sanofi Company
Investigators
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Study Director: Medical Director Sanofi Pasteur Inc.

Additional Information:
Publications of Results:

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Sanofi Pasteur, a Sanofi Company
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01374516     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CYD15
UTN: U1111-1116-4986 ( Other Identifier: WHO )
First Posted: June 16, 2011    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: March 27, 2019
Last Update Posted: April 17, 2019
Last Verified: March 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: Individual participant data (IPD) and supporting clinical documents are available for request at www.clinicalstudydatarequest.com. While making information available we continue to protect the privacy of the participants in our clinical trials and to remove commercially confidential information (CCI). Details on Data Sharing criteria and process for requesting access can be found at this web address: Clinicalstudydatarequest.com/Sanofi.

Keywords provided by Sanofi ( Sanofi Pasteur, a Sanofi Company ):
Dengue Virus
Dengue fever
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
CYD dengue vaccine
Flavivirus
Dengue Disease

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Fever
Dengue
Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral
Severe Dengue
Body Temperature Changes
Signs and Symptoms
Arbovirus Infections
Virus Diseases
Flavivirus Infections
Flaviviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Vaccines
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs