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A Transformational Teaching Intervention: Adolescents in Motion (AIM) Trial (AIM)

This study has been completed.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of British Columbia Identifier:
First received: June 7, 2011
Last updated: September 15, 2014
Last verified: September 2014
The purpose of this Randomized Controlled Tria (RCT) is to evaluate the effects of a transformational teaching intervention in comparison to 'standard educational practices' within school-based physical education classes (within three Canadian provinces; British Columbia, Ontario and Nova Scotia) across 5 months.

Condition Intervention
Physical Activity
Behavioral: Transformational Teaching
Behavioral: Standard Educational Practices

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Official Title: A Transformational Teaching Intervention: Adolescents in Motion (AIM) Trial

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by University of British Columbia:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) [ Time Frame: 5 months ]
    In addition to collecting self-report physical activity data through the use of questionnaires, a subsample of students (360 out of the overall sample of 2160) will be randomly selected and invited to wear a small physical activity monitor (accelerometer) on three occasions (January, March and May 2012) over the 5-month trial (for 7-days at each data point). The unit of measure that will be used to assess this outcome variable is MINUTES of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity both during leisure time hours (i.e., outside of school) and within school hours.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Physical activity-related cognitions and attitudes [ Time Frame: 5 months ]
    All adolescents will complete validated measures of self-efficacy (within class self-efficacy and environmental change self-efficacy), intrinsic motivation and attitudes surrounding physical education and leisure-time physical activity at each of the three time points (January, March and May 2012). Units of measure will be participants' responses on these validated scales.

  • Teaching efficacy [ Time Frame: 5 months ]
    The physical education teachers (approximately n=72) involved in the trial will complete measures of teaching efficacy at each of the three time points (January, March and May 2012). The unit of measure will be teachers' responses on this validated scale.

  • Transformational teaching behaviors [ Time Frame: 5 months ]
    Adolescents' perceptions of their physical education teacher's transformational behaviors will be measured at each of the three time points (January, March and May 2012). The unit of measure will be adolescents' responses on this validated scale.

Enrollment: 2160
Study Start Date: January 2012
Study Completion Date: July 2013
Primary Completion Date: July 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Transformational teaching condition
Teachers allocated to this condition will receive the transformational teaching intervention.
Behavioral: Transformational Teaching
Physical education teachers randomly assigned to the experimental condition will (through a 1-day workshop format) be provided with the resources to implement transformational approaches in their day-to-day work. In addition, these teachers will be involved in a follow-up support program following the workshop to help them to implement transformational teaching strategies that were developed in the workshop.
Active Comparator: Standard practice control condition
Teachers allocated to this condition will not receive the transformational teaching intervention. Instead they will take part in a parallel workshop offered by their respective school board (unrelated to transformational leadership training).
Behavioral: Standard Educational Practices
Physical education teachers randomly assigned to the control condition will take part in a professional development day workshop provided by their respective School Board. This will involve the same amount of contact time, and will take place on the same day as the transformational teaching workshop. It should be noted that the focus of those alternative workshops is unrelated to transformational leadership training.

Detailed Description:

Physical inactivity among adolescents has been linked to a vast array of physical and mental health problems. One potential vehicle to foster adolescent involvement in physical activity relates to physical education in schools.

A potentially important framework, that has recently been applied to educational and health promotion contexts, relates to transformational leadership theory. Transformational leadership involves the demonstration of behaviors that empower and inspire others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and has been consistently found to be associated with greater motivation, self-efficacy, well-being, and performance in those being led. From an applied perspective, a growing body of evidence also suggests that transformational behaviors can be developed in leaders through short-term interventions (e.g., one-day workshops), which subsequently result in positive changes in followers' attitudinal and behavioral responses.

With this in mind, the overall goal of this Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is to test the efficacy of a theory-driven evidence-based transformational teaching intervention for use within school-based physical activity settings. In this 5-month trial, physical education teachers from 36 schools from three provinces across Canada (British Columbia, Ontario and Nova Scotia) will be provided with (through a one day work shop and follow-up support program) the resources they need to implement transformational teaching behaviours in their day-to-day teaching practices. The primary hypothesis for this RCT is that students taught by teachers in the intervention condition will display greater adoption and maintenance of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) behaviors outside of school hours in comparison to control students, after controlling for baseline levels. A process evaluation will also be conducted with teachers to evaluate the procedures embedded within the intervention.


Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years to 15 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Grade 9 (aged 14 (+/- 1 year))

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Do not have basic working knowledge of English
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01371292

Canada, British Columbia
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T1Z1
Canada, Nova Scotia
Acadia University
Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada, B4P 2R6
Canada, Ontario
Queen's University
Kingston, Ontario, Canada, K7L 3N6
Nipissing University
North Bay, Ontario, Canada, P1B8L7
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of British Columbia
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
Principal Investigator: Mark R Beauchamp, PhD University of British Columbia
  More Information

Responsible Party: University of British Columbia Identifier: NCT01371292     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: H08-02513
Study First Received: June 7, 2011
Last Updated: September 15, 2014

Keywords provided by University of British Columbia:
Physical activity
Transformational leadership
Physical education processed this record on April 25, 2017