Randomized Control Trial of Fluid Therapy for Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01365793|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 3, 2011
Results First Posted : June 25, 2018
Last Update Posted : June 25, 2018
The investigators will conduct a randomized controlled trial comparing four different intravenous (IV) fluid treatment protocols for pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Two rates of rehydration will be compared; a more rapid rate and a slower rate. Within each of these two basic rehydration protocols, the investigators will vary the type of rehydration fluid used (0.9% saline or 0.45% saline). The investigators will compare the different treatments by conducting assessments of neurological injury, by measuring the frequency of significant cerebral edema, and by measuring long-term neurocognitive function.
These studies will allow us to determine whether variations in IV fluid treatment protocols affect acute neurological outcomes of DKA. Additionally, they will provide important data regarding the impact of DKA and DKA treatment on long-term neurocognitive function in children. In this way, the investigators hope to identify a more ideal fluid management strategy for children with DKA.
Previous studies have suggested that DKA may cause blood flow to the brain to be reduced and that brain injury might result from this reduction in blood flow and/or the effects of re-establishment of normal blood flow during DKA treatment with insulin and iv fluids. The investigators hypothesize that more rapidly re-establishing normal blood flow to the brain during DKA, by giving fluids more rapidly and using fluids with a higher sodium (salt) content, will help to minimize brain injury caused by DKA.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Cerebral Edema Diabetic Ketoacidosis||Drug: 0.45% saline replacement fluid Drug: 0.9% saline replacement fluid Drug: 0.45% saline intravenous fluid Drug: 0.9% saline Intravenous fluid||Phase 3|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||1389 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Factorial Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Fluid Therapy and Cerebral Injury in Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis|
|Study Start Date :||November 2010|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||September 2016|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||January 2017|
Experimental: Rapid rehydration using 0.45% saline replacement fluid
This arm will involve more rapid intravenous fluid treatment which will include a second 10cc/Kg bolus of 0.9% saline and assume a 10% fluid deficit. 0.45% saline will be used as the replacement fluid for this arm.
Drug: 0.45% saline replacement fluid
10cc/Kg bolus of 0.9% saline followed by 0.45% saline used as the replacement fluid
Experimental: Rapid rehydration using 0.9% saline replacement fluid
This arm will involve more rapid intravenous fluid treatment which will include a second 10cc/Kg bolus of 0.9% saline and assume a 10% fluid deficit. 0.9% saline will be used as the replacement fluid.
Drug: 0.9% saline replacement fluid
10cc/Kg bolus of 0.9% saline followed by 0.9% saline used as the replacement fluid.
Experimental: Slower rehydration using 0.45% saline intravenous fluid
This arm will involve slower rehydration (assumed 5% fluid deficit and no additional fluid bolus) with 0.45% saline used as the replacement fluid.
Drug: 0.45% saline intravenous fluid
0.45% saline fluid
Experimental: Slower rehydration using 0.9% saline intravenous fluid
This arm will involve slower rehydration (assumed 5% fluid deficit and no additional fuid bolus) with 0.9% saline used as the replacement fluid.
Drug: 0.9% saline Intravenous fluid
0.9% saline fluid
- the Number of Participants With Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) < 14 Within the First 24 Hours of Treatment for Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]The primary outcome is the binary indicator that a patient's GCS score drops below 14 (i.e. abnormal score) within the first 24 hours of treatment of DKA. There will be two treatment factors: sodium concentration of re-hydration fluids and rate of rehydration. These effects will be tested separately, using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test, stratified by hospital, and by the other main factor.
- Frequency of Clinically Apparent Brain Injury [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]Deterioration in neurological status requiring interventions such as hyperosmolar therapy or endotracheal intubation, or resulting in death. This outcome was determined by an adjudication committee.
- Hourly Improvement in Forward and Backward Digit Span Scores During DKA Treatment (Mean Difference Per Hour) [ Time Frame: 24 hours ]The Digit Span subtest is adapted from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th version (WISC-IV) and it assesses working memory. It consists of a Digit Span Forward task in which individuals are asked to repeat numbers in the same sequence as they were presented verbally and a Digit Span Backward task in which participants repeat the numbers in the reversed order to which they were heard. Each task yields a score ranging from 0 to 16. Higher scores represent better outcomes for this test. The trajectory of digit span scores during the course of the hospitalization was used to assess improvements in mental status and whether these varied systematically as a function of treatment protocol. Digit span measurements were collected every four hours during waking hours (7AM to 10PM). The measure analyzed is the average linear change in scores between enrollment and either 24-hours or DKA resolution, whichever occurred first.
- Mean Scores on Tests of Memory Capacity 3 Months After Recovery From DKA. [ Time Frame: 3 months ]Contextual memory was assessed via color and spatial-position tasks. Color-Task: black-ink items on a white square background were shown on a computer screen with a colored border. Subjects were asked to remember the item and the item's border color. Items were shown for 1 second, followed by a 1-second interval in which a fixation point was shown. Then, subjects were given a self-paced recognition test including studied drawings and new drawings shown in random order with no color border. Subjects determined if they had seen the drawing before. For recognized drawings, subjects reported the previously shown border color. Spatial-Position task: identical to the color task except that the items instead varied in their spatial position on the computer screen. The item-context association rate is the rate of correct item-color and item-spatial position recalled over the total of previously viewed items correctly recognized. Score range: 0-1 with higher scores indicating a better outcome.
- Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Testing [ Time Frame: 3 months ]IQ was assessed with the WASI (6-18 year olds) or WPPSI-III (3-5 year olds) at the 3 month follow-up visit. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) is a measure of IQ designed for individuals aged 6 to 89. The WASI includes four subtests; the Block Design and Matrix Reasoning tests measure Performance IQ, and the Vocabulary and Similarities tests measure Verbal IQ. Full scale IQ was computed from these scores and used for analyses. Scores typically vary from 75 to 135 with higher scores representing a better outcome.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01365793
|United States, California|
|University of California, Davis|
|Sacramento, California, United States, 95817|
|United States, Colorado|
|Children's Hospital Colorado|
|Aurora, Colorado, United States, 80045|
|United States, Delaware|
|Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children|
|Wilmington, Delaware, United States, 19803|
|United States, District of Columbia|
|Children's National Medical Center|
|Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20010|
|United States, Illinois|
|Ann & Robert Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago|
|Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60614|
|United States, Massachusetts|
|Children's Hospital Boston|
|Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115|
|United States, Missouri|
|Washington University & St. Louis Children's Hospital|
|Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, 63110|
|United States, New York|
|New York, New York, United States, 10032|
|United States, Ohio|
|Nationwide Children's Hospital|
|Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43205|
|United States, Pennsylvania|
|The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia|
|Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104|
|United States, Rhode Island|
|Hasbro Children's Hospital/Rhode Island Hospital|
|Providence, Rhode Island, United States, 02903|
|United States, Texas|
|Texas Children's Hospital|
|Houston, Texas, United States, 77030|
|United States, Utah|
|University of Utah|
|Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84158|
|Principal Investigator:||Nathan Kuppermann, MD, MPH||University of California, Davis|
|Principal Investigator:||Nicole S Glaser, MD||University of California, Davis|