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The Effects of Aerobic Water Exercise on Pregnancy

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01364506
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 2, 2011
Last Update Posted : June 2, 2011
Information provided by:

Study Description
Brief Summary:
Objective: To assess the relationship between maternal cardiovascular capacity and aerobic water exercise during the gestational periods of hemodynamic overload. Study design: randomized clinical trial, with 41 healthy pregnant women assigned to one of two groups: Control and Water exercise. Maternal cardiovascular capacity (maximum oxygen consumption, cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate and mean arterial pressure), physical performance (relative HR, treadmill speed and self-perceived exertion) and neonatal outcome (gestational age, weight, Apgar index and length of infant's hospitalization) were assessed. Means were evaluated by dependent and independent t-tests, and proportions by the chi-square method (p<0.05). Results: The control variables showed that the groups were homogeneous. Water exercise was associated with maintenance of VO2max, increase in stroke volume and cardiac output, and better performance on stress tests in the third trimester of gestation. No significant difference in neonatal variables was observed. Conclusion: Water exercise maintained cardiovascular capacity and performance under submaximal stress, and did not affect hemodynamic adaptation to gestation or neonatal outcome.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Pregnancy Related Physical Activity Other: Water aerobic exercise

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Study Design

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 41 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
Official Title: Randomized Clinical Study of the Effects of Aerobic Water Exercise on Maternal Cardiovascular Adaptation to Pregnancy
Study Start Date : January 2000
Primary Completion Date : April 2001
Study Completion Date : April 2001

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U.S. FDA Resources

Arms and Interventions

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Water exercise Other: Water aerobic exercise

The hydrotherapy program of Prevedel et al.14 was used. One-hour sessions, led by a physiotherapist under the supervision of an obstetrician, were held three times a week in an indoor swimming-pool heated at 28oC-32oC, and consisted of exercises of moderate intensity (60-70% of maximum heart rate). Subgroups of up to 10 subjects participated in each session. Sessions were offered at different times of the day (morning, afternoon, and evening).

The exercises included 5 phases: stretching, warm up, endurance training, strength training and relaxation with breathing exercises, in accordance with the recommendations of ACOG11.

No Intervention: Control

Outcome Measures

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Cardiovascular capacity [ Time Frame: 39 weeks ]
    Performed during prenatal visits at 16-20, 28-33 and 34-39 weeks. Cardiovascular capacity was evaluated by using a treadmill submaximal stress test, according to the protocol of Balke-Ware & Bruce that requires five minutes on treadmill at fixed incline and constant individualized speed with AP and HR monitoring.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Assessment of physical performance at stress testing; stress perception during testing [ Time Frame: 39 weeks ]
    Relative HR, treadmill speed and the Borg scale scores, obtained during testing, were used. A specific questionnaire was administered to all subjects in order to quantify stress perception during testing.

Eligibility Criteria

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Ages Eligible for Study:   15 Years to 26 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Low-risk (healthy) pregnant women
  • At 16-20 weeks of gestation
  • Seen at the Prenatal Care Service for Low-risk Pregnancies of Botucatu Medical School-UNESP

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Twin pregnancy
  • Clinical or obstetric disorder contraindicating an exercise program
  • Withdrawal from prenatal care at our service
  • Loss to follow-up; and failure to attend three (or more) exercise sessions, which was considered non-compliance to the aerobic water exercise program
Contacts and Locations

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To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01364506

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Botucatu Medical School - São Paulo State University/UNESP
Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Sponsors and Collaborators
UPECLIN HC FM Botucatu Unesp
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo
Federal University of São Paulo
Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP, Botucatu, Brasil
Study Director: Iracema MP Calderon, MD, Phd Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Botucatu Medical School - São Paulo State University/UNESP. Botucatu, Brazil
More Information

Responsible Party: Iracema de Mattos Paranhos Calderon, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Botucatu Medical School - São Paulo State University/UNESP. Botucatu, Brazil
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01364506     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: upeclin/HC/FMB-Unesp-54
First Posted: June 2, 2011    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 2, 2011
Last Verified: May 2011

Keywords provided by UPECLIN HC FM Botucatu Unesp:
Cardiovascular capacity
Water exercise
Hydrokinetic Therapy
Perinatal outcomes