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Protein Blends (Soy, Whey and Casein) for Muscle Synthesis

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: May 23, 2011
Last Update Posted: December 5, 2014
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
University of Texas
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Solae, LLC
Soy protein is a high quality, plant-based protein that is comparable to milk, meat and eggs. Soy protein has a digestion rate (intermediate) compared to whey (fast) and casein (slow). This intermediate rate may allow soy protein to have an extended window of muscle protein synthesis that has not been monitored in previous studies. While most of the sports nutrition "recovery" products are dairy-based protein blends (high in branched-chain amino acids), soy protein offers additional benefits that can make an important contribution to these types of sports nutrition products. Soy protein contains approximately 300% more arginine and 30% more glutamine compared to whey protein and these two amino acids may bring additional benefits (immunity and hydration, respectively) to athletes. A "blend" of high-quality proteins (soy and dairy) may be the optimal sports nutrition product for athletes to consume following training.

Condition Intervention
Muscle Synthesis Other: Protein Blend

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: A Randomized, Controlled Double Blind Acute Study: Effects of Protein Blends on Muscle Protein Synthesis and Breakdown

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Solae, LLC:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Muscle Protein Synthesis or Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 hours, 5 hours ]
    The fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of mixed muscle proteins will be calculated from the incorporation rate of L-[ring-13C6]Phenylalanine into the mixed muscle proteins, and the free-tissue phenylalanine enrichment.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • oxidative and inflammatory markers [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 hours, 5 hours ]
    Proteins will be assessed that are markers of oxidative damage and inflammation (NFkB, IL-1, IL-6) and proteolysis (MuRF, MAFBx).

  • Phosphorylation of protein in muscle protein signaling pathways [ Time Frame: baseline, 3 hours, 5 hours ]
    Phosphorylation of mTOR, 4E-BP1, S6K1, S6, and eEF2 will be measured using Western blot techniques as previously described.

Enrollment: 19
Study Start Date: January 2011
Study Completion Date: March 2013
Primary Completion Date: August 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Whey Protein Isolate Other: Protein Blend
Single intake of approximately 20 grams of total protein
Experimental: Protein Blend (soy, whey and casein) Other: Protein Blend
Single intake of approximately 20 grams of total protein


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 35 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes


  1. Age 18-35 yrs
  2. Stable body weight for at least 1 year

Exclusion criteria will be:

  1. Exercise training (>2 weekly sessions of moderate to high intensity aerobic or resistance exercise)
  2. Significant heart, liver, kidney, blood, or respiratory disease
  3. Peripheral vascular disease
  4. Diabetes mellitus or other untreated endocrine disease
  5. Active cancer (all groups) and history of cancer (groups potentially randomizable to rapamycin)
  6. Acute infectious disease or history of chronic infections (e.g. TB, hepatitis, HIV, herpes)
  7. Recent (within 6 months) treatment with anabolic steroids, or corticosteroids.
  8. Alcohol or drug abuse
  9. Tobacco use (smoking or chewing)
  10. Malnutrition (BMI < 20 kg/m2, hypoalbuminemia, and/or hypotransferrinemia)
  11. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2)
  12. Low hemoglobin levels (below normal values)
  13. Food allergies
  14. Taking dietary supplements such as green tea, etc.
  15. Currently on a high-soy diet (consuming >2 servings of soy per day)
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01358305

United States, Texas
UTMB General Clinical Research Center, located in the John Sealy Hospital
Galveston, Texas, United States, 77555
Sponsors and Collaborators
Solae, LLC
University of Texas
Principal Investigator: Ratna Mukherjea, PhD Solae, LLC
Principal Investigator: Mark B Cope, PhD Solae, LLC
Principal Investigator: Blake B Rasmussen, PhD UTMB
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Solae, LLC
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01358305     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CRC-D-176
First Submitted: May 19, 2011
First Posted: May 23, 2011
Last Update Posted: December 5, 2014
Last Verified: December 2014

Keywords provided by Solae, LLC:
inflammatory markers
soy protein

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Chelating Agents
Sequestering Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action