Trial of Low Dose Tamoxifen in Women With Breast Intraepithelial Neoplasia (TAM-01)

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified July 2014 by Ente Ospedaliero Ospedali Galliera
Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro
European Institute of Oncology
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Andrea DeCensi, Ente Ospedaliero Ospedali Galliera Identifier:
First received: May 17, 2011
Last updated: July 2, 2014
Last verified: July 2014

The long-lasting phase of precursors of invasive cancer, i.e. dysplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN), is particularly relevant among risk determinants. At present, about 15-20% of all breast cancers are diagnosed in a non-invasive phase. Despite their good prognosis, women with breast IEN (lobular and ductal intraepithelial neoplasia, LIN and DIN) have a 10-15/1000 annual risk of invasive disease (8-10 times the same age general population), and thus represent an important target for chemoprevention. In the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP-P1 trial), tamoxifen use at 20 mg/day was associated with a 86% reduction of invasive breast cancer in women with previous atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) (RR=0.14, 95% IC, 0.03-0.47) and with a 56% risk reduction in women with previous Lobular Carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (RR=0.44, 95% IC, 0.16-1.06). However, tamoxifen use in this setting is hampered by serious adverse events attributable to its partial estrogenic activity, such as increased risk of endometrial cancer and of venous thromboembolism, which have significantly limited its broad use in chemoprevention.

To improve the risk-benefit ratio, the use of lower doses of the drug has been proposed. Recent trials from our group have shown that the dose can be reduced up to 1 mg/day with no loss of tamoxifen antiproliferative activity on breast cancer. By contrast, a dose of 5 mg/day does not increase endometrial proliferation and is associated with a decrease of the estrogenic activity of tamoxifen on insulin like growth factor (IGF-I), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and antithrombin-III, with a potential decrease of venous thromboembolic events. Moreover, tamoxifen exhibits a high tissue distribution, so that a dose of 5 mg/day attains at the breast tissue level a concentration 10 times higher than that needed to inhibit cell growth in vitro. The promising clinical activity of 5 mg/day of tamoxifen is supported by an ongoing 2x2 phase IIb trial of low-dose tamoxifen and fenretinide in premenopausal women, where tamoxifen lowers breast cancer events compared with placebo. The cytochromeP450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme mediates oxidation of N-desmethyl tamoxifen to endoxifen, the most active metabolite of tamoxifen. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) CYP2D6*4 (1846G>A) allele accounts for 75% of CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype and poor metabolizers showed a trend to a higher risk to develop a breast event compared to wildtype.

Condition Intervention Phase
Intraepithelial Carcinoma
Drug: Tamoxifen
Drug: placebo
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Randomized Placebo-controlled Phase III Trial of Low Dose Tamoxifen in Women With Breast Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Ente Ospedaliero Ospedali Galliera:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Incidence of invasive breast cancer [ Time Frame: 36 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The Primary endpoint of the proposed trial is to assess if tamoxifen at a low dose, 5mg/d reduces the incidence of invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DIN 1c, 2, 3) of the breast, in woman operated for lobular intraepithelial neoplasia (LIN1, 2 and 3) or ER-positive ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (DIN 1b, DIN2, DIN3, 1a excluded) of the breast.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Incidence of other non-invasive breast disorders [ Time Frame: 36 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The secondary endpoint will evaluate the incidence of other non-invasive breast disorders (i.e., LIN, ductal atypical hyperplasia), endometrial cancer, clinical bone fractures, cardiovascular events, venous thromboembolic events, and clinically manifest cataract and overall mortality.

  • To determine CYP2D6 genotype [ Time Frame: 36 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    To determine whether CYP2D6 genotype and blood concentrations of drug and metabolites can explain tamoxifen modulation of surrogate biomarkers tamoxifen efficacy and safety, including circulating IGF-I, hormones, mammographic density, endometrial thickness and hot flashes, tamoxifen efficacy and toxicity on clinical events.

Estimated Enrollment: 1400
Study Start Date: November 2008
Estimated Study Completion Date: December 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date: December 2019 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Tamoxifen
tamoxifen at daily dose of 5 mg for a total treatment time of 3 years
Drug: Tamoxifen
at daily dose of 5 mg for a total treatment time of 3 years
Placebo Comparator: placebo
placebo at daily dose of 5 mg for a total treatment time of 3 years
Drug: placebo
placebo at daily dose of 5 mg for a total treatment time of 3 years

Detailed Description:

The time interval between Study Start Date (November 2008) and Study First Release (May 17, 2011) was related to bureaucratic problems.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 75 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Women of age < 75 years
  • Women operated on for lobular (LIN 2 and 3) or ER positive or unknown ductal (DIN 1-3, excluded DIN 1a) intraepithelial neoplasia. Both incident (diagnosis within 12 months) and prevalent cases (diagnosis between previous 12 and 60 months) will be included, upon stratification.
  • Written informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Any type of malignancy, with the exclusion of non-melanoma skin cancer;
  • Active proliferative disorders of the endometrium such as atypical hyperplasia, history of active endometriosis, unresected polyps;
  • Alterations of metabolic, liver, renal and cardiac grade 2 function (NCI criteria grade 2 or higher);
  • Any type of retinal disorders or severe cataract;
  • Presence of significant risk factors for venous events, including immobilization within the last 3 months for longer than 2 weeks following surgery or trauma, deep venous thrombophlebitis or other significant venous thrombotic event (VTE) (pulmonary embolism, stroke, etc.);
  • Use of tamoxifen, raloxifene or other selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMs) within the last 4 weeks;
  • Anticoagulant therapy in progress (heparin or dicoumarol);
  • Active infections;
  • Severe psychiatric disorders or inability to comply to the protocol procedures.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01357772

Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo studio e la cura dei tumori Recruiting
Meldola, Forlì-Cesena, Italy, 47521
Contact: Fabio Falcini    0543731741   
Principal Investigator: Fabio         
Istituto Clinico Humanitas Withdrawn
Rozzano, Milano, Italy, 20089
Ospedale di Carpi "Bernardino Ramazzini" Recruiting
Carpi, Modena, Italy, 41012
Contact: Katia Cagossi    059659981   
Principal Investigator: Katia Cagossi         
IRCCS Ospedale Oncologico di Bari - Istituto tumori "G. Paolo II" Recruiting
Bari, Italy, 70124
Contact: Maria Digennaro    0800991600   
Principal Investigator: Maria Digennaro         
Ospedale Oncologico Armando Businco Withdrawn
Cagliari, Italy, 09121
Fondazione per la ricerca e la Cura dei Tumori "T. Campanella" Recruiting
Catanzaro, Italy, 88100
Contact: Mariuccia Renne    09613647806   
Principal Investigator: Mariuccia Renne         
E.O. Ospedali Galliera Recruiting
Genoa, Italy, 16128
Contact: Andrea U De Censi, MD    0039 563 ext 4501   
Sub-Investigator: Silvia Zanardi, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Mauro D'Amico, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Alessandra Gennari, MD         
AOU IRCSS San Martino - IST Recruiting
Genova, Italy, 16100
Contact: Daniele Friedman    3356038047   
Principal Investigator: Daniele Friedman         
AOU IRCSS San Martino - IST Active, not recruiting
Genova, Italy, 16100
Istituto Europeo di Oncologia Recruiting
Milano, Italy, 20100
Contact: Bernardo Bonanni    0257489323   
Principal Investigator: Bernardo Bonanni         
A. O. Universitaria Policlinico di Modena Recruiting
Modena, Italy, 41100
Contact: Laura Cortesi    0594224334   
Principal Investigator: Laura Cortesi         
Istituto nazionale per lo studio e la cura dei tumori, IRCCS "Fondazione Pascale" Recruiting
Napoli, Italy, 80131
Contact: Giuseppe D'Aiuto    0815903509   
Principal Investigator: Giuseppe D'Aiuto         
Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri Recruiting
Pavia, Italy, 27100
Contact: Lea Regolo    3356308834   
Principal Investigator: Lea Regolo         
Ospedale Santa Maria delle Croci Recruiting
Ravenna, Italy, 48018
Contact: Giorgio Cruciani    0544286223   
Principal Investigator: Giorgio Cruciani         
A.O. Universitaria S. Giovanni Battista - "Le Molinette" Recruiting
Torino, Italy, 10123
Contact: Antonio Ponti    0116333866   
Principal Investigator: Antonio Ponti         
Presidio Ospedaliero "SS. Antonio e Margherita" Recruiting
Tortona, Italy, 15057
Contact: Maria Grazia Pacquola    0131865318   
Principal Investigator: Maria Grazia Pacquola         
Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi Recruiting
Varese, Italy, 21100
Contact: Giovanni Giardina    0332278576   
Principal Investigator: Giovanni Giardina         
A.O. Vicenza Recruiting
Vicenza, Italy, 36100
Contact: Marcella Gulisano    0444753966   
Principal Investigator: Marcella Gulisano         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Andrea DeCensi
Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro
European Institute of Oncology
Principal Investigator: Andrea De Censi, MD E.O.Ospedali Galliera
  More Information

No publications provided

Responsible Party: Andrea DeCensi, Medical Oncology Director, Ente Ospedaliero Ospedali Galliera Identifier: NCT01357772     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: GAL 01
Study First Received: May 17, 2011
Last Updated: July 2, 2014
Health Authority: Italy: The Italian Medicines Agency

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Carcinoma in Situ
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Antineoplastic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Estrogen Antagonists
Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Hormone Antagonists
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Pharmacologic Actions
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Therapeutic Uses processed this record on July 29, 2015