Addiction Housing Case Management for Homeless Veterans (AHCM)
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01346514|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 3, 2011
Results First Posted : February 28, 2017
Last Update Posted : February 28, 2017
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment|
|Homelessness Substance Abuse Disorders Mental Disorders||Behavioral: Intensive Addiction/Housing Case Management Behavioral: Housing Support Group|
Background: Homelessness, substance use, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders form a mutually perpetuating, downwardly spiraling triad that maintains a state of homelessness, increases morbidity and mortality and thereby escalates health care utilization and costs. Addiction treatment is one portal of health care entry accessed by many Veterans with this devastating triad, yet addiction treatment fails to address homelessness directly. Homeless Veterans entering addiction treatment have worse treatment outcomes and incur more costs than housed Veterans entering such treatment. Further, many homeless Veterans never obtain housing after treatment entry and substantial proportion of those who do may subsequently return to homelessness. Assertive community treatment / intensive case management shows promise in improving housing status, as well as substance use and mental health outcomes in this population. Life Skills Training, which has been shown to improve the likelihood of maintaining housing, may increase the effectiveness of this method of treatment. An approach to homelessness incorporating assertive community treatment / intensive case management and Life Skills Training has never previously been integrated into VA addiction specialty care.
Objectives: The proposed study will examine intensive case management for homeless Veterans in addiction treatment by integrating addiction/housing case managers (AHCM), operating from a Life Skills Training perspective, into an addiction specialty program. The primary aim is to determine whether the AHCM intervention increases number of days housed during the year following treatment entry. Secondary aims are to compare costs and cost-effectiveness of AHCM vs. time and attention control, determine if AHCM improves addiction outcomes and functional status, and examine treatment process variables associated with improved outcomes.
Methods: The proposed study is a, parallel design, intention to treat, randomized clinical trial comparing the AHCM intervention to a time and attention control (weekly housing group) among homeless Veterans (N=400) newly entering addiction treatment. Following baseline assessment, Veterans will be randomly assigned, stratified by gender and primary substance problem, to one of the two treatment conditions and followed for 12 months. All Veterans will receive addiction treatment as usual. Veterans assigned to the AHCM condition will have a case manager who is integrated with the interdisciplinary treatment team. The AHCM will meet with the Veteran weekly, assist the Veteran with potential housing options, support the Veteran in continuing addiction treatment and psychiatric care, visit the Veteran in the community when appropriate, and obtain point of care urine toxicology testing to assess abstinence with the goal of addressing substance use issues proactively. The AHCM will educate the Veteran on needed basic life skills using existing manuals. Veterans assigned to the control condition will attend a weekly housing group where housing options are discussed. Participants will complete research assessments every 3 months through one year and then every 6 months for up to 2 years post-randomization to assess housing status and other outcomes. The Northwest Regional Data Warehouse and Decision Support System data sources will be used to determine outpatient and inpatient VA health care services and costs for the 1 year before and 2 years after study enrollment.
Impact: If the AHCM model interrupts the mutually perpetuating triad of homelessness, substance use, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders by increasing days stably housed, reducing costs and excessive health care utilization, and improving functional status, the model could be feasibly and rapidly replicated in VA addiction programs nationwide thereby decreasing homelessness among Veterans and preserving precious health care resources.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||181 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Primary Purpose:||Health Services Research|
|Official Title:||Addiction Housing Case Management for Homeless Veterans Enrolled in Addictions Treatment|
|Study Start Date :||October 2011|
|Primary Completion Date :||November 2015|
|Study Completion Date :||May 2016|
Experimental: Arm 1: Addiction/Housing Case Management(AHCM)
The AHCM condition provided individual case management, delivered at the VA and in the community, designed to assist homeless Veterans with SUD issues who may be unable to take advantage of housing opportunities available in the VA due to difficulty navigating multiple services and maintaining stability with respect to SUD and co-occurring mental health conditions.
Behavioral: Intensive Addiction/Housing Case Management
AHCM provided: 1) support in obtaining/maintaining housing through education about resources, coordination with VA and community housing program providers, assistance in establishing housing program eligibility, and problem-solving around threats to housing stability; 2) support for SUD and related issues that affect housing status through treatment engagement/re-engagement, referrals for needed services (e.g. psychiatric, medical, vocational), and addressing substance use issues proactively; 3) promotion of residential stability through Life Skills Training, which was designed to improve key skills (room and self-care, money management, and community participation).
Other Name: AHCM
Active Comparator: Arm 2: Housing Support Group(HSG)
The HSG condition involved a weekly drop-in housing support group.
Behavioral: Housing Support Group
The HSG focused on gaining support from fellow study participants and learning from those who successfully obtained housing. Group facilitators provided education about housing resources and assistance with housing-related issues.
Other Name: HSG
- Percent Days Housed in AHCM vs. HSG, Baseline to 12 Months. [ Time Frame: 12 months (18 to 24 month outcomes examined in secondary analyses) ]The primary aim is to determine whether the Addiction/Housing Case Management intervention increases percent days in long-term housing (permanent or long-term transitional) during the year following treatment entry relative to a Housing Support Group.
- Costs and Cost-effectiveness of AHCM vs. HSG, Baseline to 12 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12 months ]Costs and cost-effectiveness of Addiction/Housing Case Management to the Housing Support Group condition.
- Change in Functional Status in AHCM vs. HSG From Baseline to 12 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12 months ]Determine if Addiction/Housing Case Management compared to a Housing Support Group control significantly improved functional status outcomes among homeless Veterans entering addiction specialty care over the 12-month study course. Functional status was measured by Medical, Employment, Family/Social, and Legal Composite Scores (range 0 to 1 with higher scores indicating greater severity) on the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and the Physical Component Summary (PCS, range 0 to 100 with lower scores indicating greater severity) on the SF-36. Negative change on the ASI measures indicates improvement. Positive change on the SF-36 PCS indicates improvement.
- Change in Alcohol and Drug Outcomes in AHCM vs. HSG From Baseline to 12 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12 months ]Determine if Addiction/Housing Case Management compared to a Housing Support Group control significantly improved alcohol and drug outcomes, as measured by Alcohol and Drug Composite Scores (range 0 to 1, with higher scores indicating greater severity) on the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), among homeless Veterans entering addiction specialty care over the 12-month study course. Negative change on the ASI measures indicates improvement.
- Change in Percent of Participants Abstinent From Baseline to 12 Month Follow-up [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12 months ]Determine if Addiction/Housing Case Management compared to a Housing Support Group control significantly increase the percent of participants abstinent from alcohol and drugs over the past 30 days among homeless Veterans entering addiction specialty care over the 12-month study course. Positive change indicates improvement.
- Change in Mental Health Status in AHCM vs. HSG From Baseline to 12 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12 months ]Determine if Addiction/Housing Case Management compared to a Housing Support Group control significantly improved mental health outcomes, as measured by the Psychiatric Composite Score (range 0 to 1, with higher scores indicating greater severity) on the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS, range 0 to 100 with lower scores indicating greater severity) of the SF-36, among homeless Veterans entering addiction specialty care over the 12-month study course. Negative change on the ASI Psychiatric Composite Score indicates improvement. Positive change on the SF-36 MCS indicates improvement.
- Treatment Process Measures (Number of Treatment Sessions, Type of Housing Placement, and Change in Life Skills) [ Time Frame: Baseline to 12 months ]Analyses will explore whether treatment process variables mediate differences in outcomes between Addiction/Housing Case Management and time and attention conditions.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01346514
|United States, Washington|
|VA Puget Sound Health Care System Seattle Division, Seattle, WA|
|Seattle, Washington, United States, 98108|
|Principal Investigator:||Andrew J. Saxon, MD||VA Puget Sound Health Care System Seattle Division, Seattle, WA|