A Gene by Medication Interaction to the Acute Effects of Alcohol (ATX)
Alcohol dependence, or "alcoholism", affects approximately 14 million Americans. Currently, only three pharmacotherapies (disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate) have been approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence and these medications are, at best, moderately successful. Thus, there is a great need for the examination of other biological systems, which contribute/influence the drug reward/addiction pathways within the brain, such that the discovery of new targets and new pharmacotherapies will be possible. Other biological systems in addition to dopamine, such as serotonin, and norepinephrine (NE) are thought to be important in several aspects of addiction, including reward, craving and depression.
This study will examine the effects of a 5 day course of atomoxetine (a selective NE transporter (NET) inhibitor) (80 mg/day; Strattera or placebo) on alcohol-elicited craving and sensitivity to alcohol. The novelty of this study is that of atomoxetine and the fact that it targets NET, neither of which has heretofore been examined in the context of alcohol dependence. It is hopeful that this study, of 64 total individuals, will provide the PI with sufficient preliminary data to submit a subsequent R01 application to study atomoxetine and the involvement of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms within the NET gene on alcohol-related phenotypes in alcohol dependent and non-dependent populations. The long-term objective of this research is to develop more efficacious treatment interventions for alcohol abuse and dependence.
|Alcohol-induced Cue-craving Alcohol Sensitivity||Drug: Placebo Comparator Drug: Active Comparator: Atomoxetine, Placebo||Phase 1|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
|Official Title:||A Gene by Medication Interaction to the Acute Effects of Alcohol|
- Alcohol urge questionnaire [ Time Frame: On day 5 of medication ]This questionnaire is used to assess craving. The AUQ consists of eight items related to urge drink that are rated on a 7-point Likert scale with the extremes anchored by "Strongly Disagree" and "Strongly Agree." The AUQ has demonstrated internal consistency and reliability (Bohn et al., 1995).
- Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) [ Time Frame: On day 5 of medication ]
|Study Start Date:||January 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||April 2012|
|Primary Completion Date:||February 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Placebo Comparator: Placebo, Atomoxetine||
Drug: Placebo Comparator
16 NET SNP rs 11648486 CC and CT individuals will receive placebo and then after one week washout period, receive atomoxetine. Medications will be given as 2 capsules 1x day for 5 days; active atomoxetine groups will receive 40 mg for 3 days, followed by 80 or 120mg (.91-1.4 mg/kg) on days 4 and 5
|Active Comparator: Atomoxetine, Placebo||
Drug: Active Comparator: Atomoxetine, Placebo
16 NET SNP rs 11648486 CC and CT individuals will receive atomoxetine and then after one week washout period, receive placebo.Medications will be given as 2 capsules 1x day for 5 days; active atomoxetine groups will receive 40 mg for 3 days, followed by 80 or 120mg (.91-1.4 mg/kg) on days 4 and 5.
NET genotype groups for rs11648486 SNP (CC 61%; CT 33%; TT 4%) (e.g., C/C and C/T) will be compared to one another in a 2 (NET Genotype: C/C vs. C/T & T/T) x 2 (Medication: atomoxetine 80 mg/day (~ vs. placebo) x 3 (Drink: Drink 1, 2, and 3) mixed factorial repeated measures design using PROC MIXED in SAS by calculating difference scores. Of interest are the possible interactions of the NET SNPs and atomoxetine on cue-elicited craving and the rewarding effects of alcohol across trials.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01343628
|United States, Virginia|
|Center for Addiction Research and Education|
|Charlottesville/ Richmond, Virginia, United States, 22903|
|Principal Investigator:||Heather M Haughey, PhD||University of Virginia|