Sorafenib in Children and Young Adults With Recurrent or Progressive Low-Grade Astrocytomas

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01338857
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Sorafenib ineffective for tx of recurrent or progressive PLGA)
First Posted : April 20, 2011
Results First Posted : February 22, 2016
Last Update Posted : February 17, 2017
Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Inc./Bayer Schering Pharma
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
New York University School of Medicine

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to determine if a drug called sorafenib can shrink LGA tumors (low-grade astrocytomas) in children and adults. Previous research has given us a better understanding of this type of tumor by studying the genetic "make-up" of LGAs. From this research, the investigators found that a drug called sorafenib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the molecules needed for cell growth and by blocking blood flow to the tumor. This trial is studying how well sorafenib works in treating patients with LGAs, and how the effects relate to the specific genetic "make-up" of your particular tumor. This testing of your tumor's genetic make-up is optional and requires available tumor tissue for testing. In summary, the aims of this study are: To see if sorafenib can shrink LGAs; how well sorafenib is tolerated in patients with LGAs; and, how the effects of sorafenib relate to the genetic make-up of individual LGAs (Optional Study)

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
neurofibromatosis1 (NF1) Recurrent or Progressive Optic Pathway Gliomas (OPG) Recurrent or Progressive Low-grade Glioma Drug: Sorafenib (Nexavar) Phase 2

Detailed Description:

Novel therapies are urgently needed for children with relapsed LGA who are not surgical candidates and/or have exhausted standard chemotherapy approaches. Although a vast number of "molecular targeted" agents have been developed over the past decade for the treatment of cancer, none have been evaluated for the treatment of LGAs. Recently, genetic alterations resulting in oncogenic BRAF have been identified to be highly prevalent in LGAs, providing a rational target for therapeutic intervention.

The aims of this clinical trial are to estimate the efficacy, as well as safety and tolerability of sorafenib, a RAF and tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, in the treatment of pediatric patients with recurrent LGA. Sorafenib targets several pathways that, based on preliminary data from us and others, are likely contributing to the growth of LGAs: oncogenic BRAF, which is present in the majority of grade I LGAs and VEGFR2 and PDGFR, which are well-described mediators of tumor angiogenesis. Since sorafenib inhibits a number of additional kinases whose role in LGA growth has not yet been explored, it is possible that inhibition of pathways other than the primary targets may result in additional anti-tumor effects of sorafenib in LGA. Although the investigators hypothesize that LGAs with oncogenic BRAF should be most sensitive to sorafenib, the additional targets of sorafenib may also result in significant anti-tumor effects in LGAs with wild-type BRAF. Therefore, the investigators propose to evaluate the efficacy of sorafenib in children with LGAs in a translational clinical trial, stratified by BRAF status and tumor grade.

The investigators expect to learn the following from this clinical translational trial:

  • The anti-tumor activity of sorafenib in pediatric LGAs
  • The safety and tolerability of sorafenib in pediatric patients with LGAs
  • The association of molecular target expression, e.g. oncogenic BRAF, with response rates

The investigators will use the results of the clinical translational trial to determine if sorafenib warrants further clinical study in pediatric LGAs. If the investigators find associations between molecular target expression and response, further studies may be limited to or focus on patients whose tumors have specific molecular features, such as oncogenic BRAF. Sorafenib has also shown promise in combination with classic chemotherapy and can be given together with carboplatin, which is one of the most active agents in LGAs. Therefore, possible synergy between sorafenib and traditional chemotherapy used in the treatment of LGAs, such as carboplatin, could be explored in future clinical trials.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 12 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Phase II Study of Sorafenib in Children and Young Adults With Recurrent or Progressive Low-Grade Astrocytomas
Study Start Date : April 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2013
Actual Study Completion Date : March 2013

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Sorafenib (Nexavar)
Sorafenib will be administered orally BID (approximately every 12 hours). Grapefruit juice is not allowed while taking sorafenib. A cycle of therapy is considered to be 28 days and there is no interruption between cycles. Patients may receive up to a total of 12 cycles provided that no off-protocol or off-study criteria are met.
Drug: Sorafenib (Nexavar)

Sorafenib (in tablet form) will be administered orally BID (approximately every 12 hours). Grapefruit juice is not allowed while taking sorafenib. A cycle of therapy is considered to be 28 days and there is no interruption between cycles. Patients may receive up to a total of 12 cycles provided that no off-protocol or off-study criteria are met.

Children/adolescents (< 18 years of age, non-NF1): 200 mg/m2/dose PO twice daily (rounded to the nearest 50 mg increment as per Section 4.1) to a maximum of 400 mg PO twice daily

Adults (greater than or equal to 18 years of age, non-NF1): 400 mg PO twice daily

NF1 patients (regardless of age): 80 mg/m2/dose PO twice daily (rounded to the nearest 50 mg increment as per Section 4.1) to a maximum of 150 mg PO twice daily

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Response Rate to Sorafenib [ Time Frame: one year ]
    To estimate the objective response rates to sorafenib in children and young adults with low-grade astrocytomas, including optic pathway gliomas.

  2. Objective Response Rates [ Time Frame: MRIs performed after every 3rd 28-day cycle and off-study ]
    Determination of tumor response (CR, PR, SD) will be defined based on the comparison of the baseline MRI performed at study entry to the subsequent MRI which demonstrated best response. PR will be defined by a >15% decrease in tumor volume, as measured by 3D volumetric analysis.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   2 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age: greater than or equal to 2 years of age
  • Patients with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) are eligible
  • Recurrent/progressive optic pathway gliomas (OPG) by MRI criteria, after standard therapy - histologic confirmation not required OR Histologically confirmed, radiographically recurrent or progressive low-grade glioma (WHO grade I or II) by MRI criteria, after standard therapy.
  • Karnofsky performance status (PS) 60-100% (greater than or equal to 16 years of age) OR Lansky PS 60-100% (< 16 years of age)
  • Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1,000/mm³ (unsupported)
  • Platelet count ≥ 75,000/mm³ (unsupported)
  • Normal PT, PTT, and INR (for patients on prophylactic anticoagulation only)
  • Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≤ the 95th percentile for age and gender and not currently receiving medication for the treatment of hypertension.
  • Adequate pulmonary function, defined as: no evidence of dyspnea at rest, no exercise intolerance, and pulse oximetry > 94% if termination is clinically indicated.
  • Not received myelosuppressive chemotherapy or treatment with biologicals or monoclonal antibodies within 4 weeks of enrollment onto this study (6 weeks if prior nitrosurea)
  • At least 7 days since the completion of therapy with a hematopoietic growth factor and at least 14 days from the last administration of PEGylated GCSF (Neulasta®)
  • If prior radiation therapy, ≥ 6 months must have elapsed since the last fraction for craniospinal therapy and ≥ 3 months for focal radiotherapy including radiosurgery.
  • If prior surgery, ≥ 8 weeks must have elapsed since (≥ 4 weeks for minor surgery/procedures including central line placement)
  • Steroids are allowed for progressive symptoms but patient must be on a stable or decreasing dose for at least 1 week prior to study entry
  • Any neurologic deficits must be stable for ≥ 1 week

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients with serious concurrent infection or medical illness, including overt hepatic or renal disease, which would jeopardize the ability of the patient to receive the treatment outlined in this protocol with reasonable safety.
  • Baseline hypertension greater than grade 1.
  • Prior treatment with sorafenib
  • Other concurrent investigational drugs
  • Other concurrent anticancer agents or therapies, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, or biologic therapy
  • Concurrent therapeutic anticoagulation. Prophylactic anticoagulation (i.e. low dose heparin) of venous or arterial access devices is allowed.
  • Concurrent administration of any of cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing agents, including grapefruit juice and drugs listed under Section 9.7.
  • Cardiac ventricular arrhythmias requiring anti-arrhythmic therapy.
  • Uncontrolled hypertension Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or chronic Hepatitis B or C.
  • Active clinically serious infection
  • Thrombolic or embolic events such as a cerebrovascular accident including transient ischemic attacks within the past 6 months.
  • Pulmonary hemorrhage/bleeding event
  • Any other hemorrhage/bleeding event
  • Serious non-healing wound, ulcer, or bone fracture.
  • Evidence or history of unresolved bleeding diathesis or coagulopathy.
  • Major surgery, open biopsy or significant traumatic injury within 4 weeks of first study drug.
  • Known or suspected allergy to sorafenib.
  • Any malabsorption problem.
  • Patients with history of any prior CNS bleeding.
  • Patients with any non-healed wounds.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01338857

United States, New York
New York University Stephen D. Hassenfeld Children's Center for Cancer & Blood Disorders
New York, New York, United States, 10016
Sponsors and Collaborators
New York University School of Medicine
Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Inc./Bayer Schering Pharma
Principal Investigator: Matthias A Karajannis, MD NYU

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: New York University School of Medicine Identifier: NCT01338857     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 10-00561
First Posted: April 20, 2011    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 22, 2016
Last Update Posted: February 17, 2017
Last Verified: December 2016

Keywords provided by New York University School of Medicine:
neurofibromatosis1 (NF1)
Recurrent or progressive optic pathway gliomas (OPG)
Recurrent or progressive low-grade glioma
low-grade astrocytoma

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Neurofibromatosis 1
Optic Nerve Glioma
Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial
Neuroectodermal Tumors
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue
Nerve Sheath Neoplasms
Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary
Neurocutaneous Syndromes
Nervous System Diseases
Heredodegenerative Disorders, Nervous System
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Genetic Diseases, Inborn
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
Neuromuscular Diseases
Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms
Nervous System Neoplasms
Optic Nerve Neoplasms
Cranial Nerve Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Cranial Nerve Diseases
Optic Nerve Diseases
Eye Diseases