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Broccoli Sprout Extracts Trial to See if NRF2 is Enhanced by Sulforaphane Treatment in Patients With COPD (BEST)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Temple University
State University of New York at Buffalo
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Johns Hopkins University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01335971
First received: April 8, 2011
Last updated: April 11, 2017
Last verified: April 2017
  Purpose
Evidence from investigators' group has shown that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have impairment of antioxidant defenses which are caused by a defect in activity of Nrf2. This trial focuses on sulforaphane, a derivative of cruciferous vegetables, which is a potent stimulator of Nrf2 activity. The investigators want to investigate whether ingestion of sulforaphane by COPD patients will increase Nrf2 activity and expression of downstream antioxidants. Accordingly, the investigators are conducting a placebo-controlled randomized proof of principle trial of two oral doses of sulforaphane, 25 and 150 micromoles, for 4 weeks in 90 COPD patients. The investigators' goal is to establish a safe and tolerable dose of sulforaphane that effects in vivo antioxidants via Nrf2, then the investigators will have a novel candidate treatment for longer-term efficacy trials.

Condition Intervention Phase
COPD Drug: Sulforaphane 25 Dietary Supplement: Sulforaphane 150 Other: Placebo Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Enhancing Nrf2 by Sulforaphane Treatment in COPD

Further study details as provided by Johns Hopkins University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Change From Baseline in Alveolar Macrophage Expression of Nrf2 and Associated Genes at 4 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline and 4 weeks ]
    The first primary design variable is the change from baseline in nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2) expression in alveolar macrophages (AM) at 4 weeks by analysing Nrf2 protein and expression of a panel of Nrf2 regulated genes.Three participants - one from each treatment group - were unable to complete follow-up bronchoalveolar lavage for primary outcome data.

  • Change From Baseline in Bronchial Epithelial Cell Expression of Nrf2 at 4 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline and 4 weeks ]
    The second primary design variable is the change from baseline in nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2) expression in bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) at 4 weeks by analysing Nrf2 protein. Three participants - one from each treatment group - were unable to complete follow-up bronchoalveolar lavage for primary outcome data.

  • Change From Baseline in Bronchial Epithelial Cell Expression of NQ01 and Keap1 at 4 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline and 4 weeks ]
    The third primary design variable is the change from baseline in NAD(P)H Quinone Dehydrogenase 1 (NQ01) and Kelch Like ECH Associated Protein 1 (Keap1) expression in bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) at 4 weeks. Three participants - one from each treatment group - were unable to complete follow-up bronchoalveolar lavage for primary outcome data.

  • Change From Baseline in Bronchial Epithelial Cell Expression of HO1 at 4 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline and 4 weeks ]
    The fourth primary design variable is the change from baseline in expression of Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO1) in bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) at 4 weeks. Three participants - one from each treatment group - were unable to complete follow-up bronchoalveolar lavage for primary outcome data.

  • Change From Baseline in Bronchial Epithelial Cell Expression of AKR1C1 at 4 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline and 4 weeks ]
    The fifth primary design variable is the change from baseline in expression of Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 Member C1 (AKR1C1) in bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) at 4 weeks. Three participants - one from each treatment group - were unable to complete follow-up bronchoalveolar lavage for primary outcome data.

  • Change From Baseline in Bronchial Epithelial Cell Expression of AKR1C3 at 4 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline and 4 weeks ]
    The sixth primary design variable is the change from baseline in expression of Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 Member C3 (AKR1C3) in bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) at 4 weeks. Three participants - one from each treatment group - were unable to complete follow-up bronchoalveolar lavage for primary outcome data.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Fold-change in Isoprostane Concentrations (Follow-up to Baseline) [ Time Frame: Baseline and 4 weeks ]
    Isoprostane, an oxidant stress indicator, was measured in expired breath condensate at baseline and 4 weeks.

  • Fold-change in Serum Inflammatory Marker Concentrations (Follow-up to Baseline) [ Time Frame: Baseline and 4 weeks ]
    Inflammatory markers were measured in serum samples derived from venipuncture at baseline and 4 weeks in the serum of the participants of the trial.

  • Fold-change in Inflammatory Marker Concentrations in Bronchial Alveolar Lavage (Follow-up to Baseline) by Treatment Group [ Time Frame: Baseline and 4 weeks ]
    Inflammatory markers were measured in bronchial alveolar lavage samples at baseline and 4 weeks in the participants of this trial who had bronchoalveolar lavage samples obtained.Three participants - one from each treatment group - were unable to complete follow-up bronchoalveolar lavage.

  • Fold-change in Plasma Inflammatory Marker Concentrations (Follow-up to Baseline) [ Time Frame: Baseline and 4 weeks ]
    Inflammatory markers were measured in plasma at baseline and 4 weeks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were measured in nmol malondialdehyde (MDA)/mL.


Enrollment: 89
Actual Study Start Date: September 2010
Study Completion Date: June 2015
Primary Completion Date: July 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Sulforaphane 25
25 micromoles (4.4 mg) sulforaphane daily by mouth
Drug: Sulforaphane 25
25 micromoles (4.4 mg) sulforaphane daily by mouth
Other Name: This is derived from broccoli sprouts.
Active Comparator: Sulforaphane 150
150 micromoles (26.6 mg) sulforaphane daily by mouth
Dietary Supplement: Sulforaphane 150
150 micromoles (26.6 mg) sulforaphane daily by mouth
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Microcrystalline cellulose
Other: Placebo
Microcrystalline cellulose once daily by mouth

Detailed Description:
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and is a growing cause of chronic disease internationally. Presently, there are limited treatment options for this disease to modify the progression of airflow obstruction and decrease periodic exacerbations. Recent evidence has emphasized the central role of oxidative stress as a mechanism of COPD pathobiology. Evidence from investigators' group has shown that COPD patients and animals exposed to cigarette smoke have impairment of antioxidant defenses which are caused by a defect in activity of nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2), a prolific regulator of anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione homeostasis, and cytoprotective proteins. Activation of Nrf2 protects mice with chronic smoke exposure from developing emphysema, decreases oxidative stress, increases proteasomal anti-apoptotic cytoprotective responses, improves bacterial phagocytosis and killing, and reverses tobacco-smoke induced corticosteroid resistance. Similarly, in vitro Nrf2 activation in human COPD lung cells has shown improved cytoprotection, improved bacterial clearance, and restoration of steroid sensitivity. This trial focuses on sulforaphane, a derivative of cruciferous vegetables, which is a potent in vitro and in vivo stimulator of Nrf2 activity. The investigators want to investigate whether ingestion of sulforaphane by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients will increase Nrf2 activity and expression of downstream antioxidants in alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells. Accordingly, the investigators are conducting a placebo-controlled randomized proof of principle trial of two oral doses of sulforaphane, 25 and 150 micromoles, for 4 weeks in 90 COPD patients. Collections of alveolar macrophages by Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), bronchial epithelial cells by endobronchial brushings will be performed at baseline and 4 weeks. Other bio-specimens will include nasal epithelial cells, Peripheral Blood Monocyte Collection (PBMCs), and expired breath condensate (EBC). The investigators' goal is to establish a safe and tolerable dose of sulforaphane that effects in vivo antioxidants via Nrf2, then the investigators will have a novel candidate treatment for longer-term efficacy trials. Ancillary studies are proposed to explore the efficacy and mechanisms of sulforaphane to increase bacterial clearance and to restore steroid sensitivity in COPD lung cells.
  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   40 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 40 years or greater, either sex
  • 10 or more pack-years smoking history
  • Physician diagnosed COPD
  • Post bronchodilator Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/ forced expiratory vital capacity (FVC) ratio < 0.70
  • FEV1 40-80 % predicted
  • Willingness to ingest no more than 1 serving of cruciferous vegetables per week during run-in and treatment periods
  • Ability and willingness to provide informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • COPD exacerbation within preceding 6 weeks requiring treatment
  • Significant respiratory (other than COPD), cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, renal, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary disease that would interfere with participation in the study or interpretation of the results.
  • Acute Myocardial infarction (MI) or Acute Coronary syndrome within 6 prior months
  • Cancer (other than skin or localized prostate) within preceding 5 years
  • Child-bearing potential with lack of adequate contraception, Pregnancy or lactation. Acceptable forms of birth control include abstinence, hysterectomy, tubal ligation, two of the following: vasectomy, condom, diaphragm, intrauterine device, oral or implanted contraceptives, or spermicide.
  • Allergy to local anesthesia
  • Resting hypoxemia (O2 saturation < 90%)
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) < 30
  • Liver enzymes four times upper normal
  • Current use of warfarin for any indication
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01335971

Locations
United States, Maryland
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21224
United States, New York
University at Baffalo, The State University of New York
Buffalo, New York, United States, 14215
United States, Pennsylvania
Temple University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19122
Sponsors and Collaborators
Johns Hopkins University
Temple University
State University of New York at Buffalo
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Janet T Holbrook, PhD, MPH Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Johns Hopkins University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01335971     History of Changes
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT01318603
Other Study ID Numbers: 1U01HL105569 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
RFA-HL-10-003 ( Other Identifier: NHLBI )
Study First Received: April 8, 2011
Results First Received: August 25, 2016
Last Updated: April 11, 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: The primary method of data-sharing will be through the traditional mechanism of publication of results in the peer-reviewed medical literature. Following publication of the main results, in accordance with NIH policy, a de-identified, HIPAA-compliant limited use dataset will be made available to qualified investigators who have Institutional Review Board approval and sign a data-use agreement. De-identified specimens collected in the study that are not analyzed for the main study will be made available to qualified investigators along with a limited use dataset in line with University and Office of Human Research Protections guidelines with a materials transfer agreement and/or data-use agreement as applicable. The Center for Clinical Trials has extensive experience in preparation of limited use datasets, and maintains policies and model agreements for data-use agreements and materials-transfer agreements.

Keywords provided by Johns Hopkins University:
COPD
Nrf2
Sulforaphane

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Sulforafan
Anticarcinogenic Agents
Protective Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 21, 2017