Efficacy of Artemether-lumefantrine, Artesunate-amodiaquine and Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in Malawi
Background: Malaria is a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in Malawi. Prompt and effective treatment of uncomplicated malaria remains a key strategy to reduce the public health burden of malaria. Due to the rising resistance to and falling efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria from 1993 to 2007, the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) revised the national treatment guidelines in 2007. The revised treatment guidelines recommend artemether-lumefantrine as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria and artesunate-amodiaquine as a second-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. The change in policy was based primarily on efficacy data from other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, although both artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine have been in use in Malawi since 2007, there are relatively few studies assessing their efficacy. In a study conducted in 2004-2006 in Blantyre, artemether-lumefantrine was found to be efficacious.1 In addition, a more recent assessment of artemether-lumefantrine in vivo efficacy conducted in six sites in Malawi in 2009 also suggests that the standard formulation artemether-lumefantrine remains highly efficacious (Kamija Phiri, personal communication).
Although, some Malawi-specific data on the in vivo efficacy of the standard formulation of artemether-lumefantrine exists, there are additional data that is needed to support the current policy and inform future policy decisions. In 2010 the NMCP has introduced the dispersible formulation of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem-D™) for use as a first-line antimalarial in Malawi, due to the global unavailability of the standard formulation of artemether-lumefantrine from Novartis, the key supplier of the standard formulation of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem™) in Malawi. In light of these developments, an assessment of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the dispersible formulation of artemether-lumefantrine is warranted. In addition, the efficacy, safety and tolerability of co-formulated artesunate-amodiaquine, the current secondline treatment for uncomplicated malaria, has never been assessed in Malawi and should be evaluated. Lastly, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine has recently been added to the new World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This promising new antimalarial might have a role as a first-line or second-line antimalarial for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, but there are no efficacy and safety data from Malawi. This knowledge gap needs to be addressed to help inform policy makers about the potential role of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Malawi.
Objective: Efficacy and safety of the dispersible formulation of artemether-lumefantrine, co-formulated artesunate-amodiaquine and co-formulated dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at Machinga District Hospital- Malawi
Methods: An antimalarial drug efficacy trial will be conducted in Malawi. The participants will be febrile people 6-59 months old with confirmed uncomplicated P. falciparum infection. Patients will be sequentially allocated to receive treatment with either the dispersible formulation of artemether-lumefantrine at a dose of 2/12 mg/kg body weight of artemether and lumefantrine, respectively, per dose, given twice a day for 3 days; or co-formulated artesunate-amodiaquine at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day artesunate and 10 mg/kg/day amodiaquine once a day for 3 days; or co-formulated dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day dihydroartemisinin and 18 mg/kg/day piperaquine once a day for 3 days. Clinical and parasitological parameters will be monitored over a 42-day follow-up period to evaluate drug effi¬cacy. The study will be conducted from January to December, 2011. The results of this study will be used to assist the Ministry of Health in Malawi in assessing the current national treatment guidelines for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.
|Malaria, Falciparum||Drug: Artemether-lumefantrine combination Drug: Artesunate-amodiaquine combination Drug: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Efficacy and Safety of the Dispersible Formulation of Artemether-lumefantrine, Co-formulated Artesunate-amodiaquine and Co-formulated Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in Machinga District, Malawi|
- Adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) [ Time Frame: 42 days ]Absence of parasitaemia on day 42, irrespective of axillary temperature, in patients who did not previously meet any of the criteria of early treatment failure, late clinical failure or late parasitological failure.
|Study Start Date:||August 2011|
|Study Completion Date:||June 2012|
|Primary Completion Date:||June 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Drug: Artemether-lumefantrine combination
Dispersible formulation of artemether-lumefantrine at a dose of 2/12 mg/kg body weight of artemether and lumefantrine, respectively, per dose, given twice a day for 3 days
Drug: Artesunate-amodiaquine combination
Co-formulated artesunate-amodiaquine at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day artesunate and 10 mg/kg/day amodiaquine once a day for 3 days
Co-formulated dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day dihydroartemisinin and 18 mg/kg/day piperaquine once a day for 3 days
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01326754
|Machinga District Hospital|
|Principal Investigator:||Jacek Skarbinski, MD||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|
|Principal Investigator:||Don Mathanga, MBBS PhD||University of Malawi College of Medicine|