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Riluzole and Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Melanoma

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01303341
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : February 24, 2011
Last Update Posted : March 27, 2023
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Brief Summary:
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of sorafenib tosylate when given together with riluzole in treating patients with solid tumors or melanoma that has spread to other places in the body and usually cannot be cured or controlled with treatment. Riluzole may stop or slow the growth of tumor cells. Sorafenib tosylate may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Giving riluzole together with sorafenib tosylate may kill more tumor cells.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm Recurrent Melanoma Refractory Malignant Solid Neoplasm Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7 Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis Other: Pharmacological Study Drug: Riluzole Drug: Sorafenib Tosylate Phase 1

Detailed Description:


I. To define a safe dose of sorafenib (sorafenib tosylate) to combine with riluzole in the treatment of patients with all types of solid tumors refractory to standard therapy or for whom no standard therapy exists.


I. To examine the correlation of clinical or radiologic response with signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathways.

II. To determine if response to therapy with riluzole and sorafenib correlates with expression levels of B-cell lymphoma (BCL)-2, myeloid cell leukemia (MCL)-1, or BCL2-like 11 (apoptosis facilitator) (BIM).

III. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of the combination of riluzole with sorafenib and determine if any drug-drug interactions exist.

IV. To evaluate the microvesicle (an inter-cellular communication approach which may cargo proteins, ribonucleic acids [RNAs] and deoxyribonucleic acids [DNAs] to its host cell) quantification difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment peripheral blood samples of patients.

OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of sorafenib tosylate.

Patients receive riluzole orally (PO) twice daily (BID) and sorafenib tosylate PO once daily (QD) or BID on days 1-28. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study therapy, patients are followed up for approximately 2-3 years.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 35 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I Trial of Riluzole and Sorafenib in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors and Melanoma
Actual Study Start Date : February 18, 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date : May 1, 2012
Estimated Study Completion Date : September 9, 2023

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Treatment (riluzole and sorafenib tosylate)
Patients receive riluzole PO BID and sorafenib tosylate PO QD or BID on days 1-28. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Correlative studies

Other: Pharmacological Study
Correlative studies

Drug: Riluzole
Given PO
Other Name: Rilutek

Drug: Sorafenib Tosylate
Given PO
Other Names:
  • BAY 43-9006 Tosylate
  • BAY 54-9085
  • Nexavar
  • sorafenib

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Maximum-tolerated dose of sorafenib tosylate and riluzole in patients with all types of solid tumors [ Time Frame: 28 days ]
    Maximum tolerated dose is defined as the first dose level at which exactly 2/6 patients experience dose limiting toxicity, or at which 1/6 experience dose limiting toxicity and (due to de-escalation) at least 2/3 or 3/6 patients treated with the next higher dose level had dose limiting toxicity.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Suppression of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]
    Will examine the correlation of clinical or radiologic response with signaling.

  2. Change in BCL-2 expression [ Time Frame: Baseline to 3 years ]
    Appropriate parametric (such as paired t-test) or nonparametric (such as Wilcoxon signed rank test) methods will be used.

  3. Change in MCL-1 expression [ Time Frame: Baseline to 3 years ]
    Appropriate parametric (such as paired t-test) or nonparametric (such as Wilcoxon signed rank test) methods will be used.

  4. Change in BIM expression [ Time Frame: Baseline to 3 years ]
    Appropriate parametric (such as paired t-test) or nonparametric (such as Wilcoxon signed rank test) methods will be used.

  5. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the combination of riluzole with sorafenib tosylate [ Time Frame: On days 2, 8, 10, and 15 of each course ]
    Will be assessed from blood samples.

  6. Change in microvesicle quantification [ Time Frame: Baseline to 3 years ]
    Will be assessed from blood samples.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients must have histologically proven solid tumors (Phase I) with biopsiable tumor (expansion cohort) refractory to standard therapy or for whom no standard therapy exists or who decline standard therapy
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status =< 2
  • Patients must be willing and able to sign informed consent
  • Unlimited prior therapies are permitted for patients enrolled in the dose escalation phase of the study; patients in the expansion cohort of the study may not have any prior therapy with riluzole or sorafenib and must have biopsiable tumor
  • Patients may have measurable or evaluable disease
  • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1,500/uL
  • Platelets >= 100,000/uL
  • Total bilirubin =< 1.5 x institutional upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT])/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) =< 2.5 x institutional ULN
  • International normalized ratio (INR) =< 1.5 x institutional ULN
  • Creatinine =< 2 x ULN
  • Patients with brain lesions that have been treated with whole brain radiotherapy and are clinically stable for at least 4 weeks, are not taking steroids and are not receiving enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants will be eligible

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Serious concomitant systemic disorders (including active infections) that would compromise the safety of the patient or compromise the patient's ability to complete the study, at the discretion of the investigator
  • For patients who have received gamma knife or stereotactic radiosurgery, a 2 week washout is required; patients who have had other types of radiotherapy, chemotherapy or biologic agents within 3 weeks (6 weeks for nitrosoureas or mitomycin C) prior to entering the study or those who have not recovered from adverse events due to agents administered more than 3 weeks earlier to =< grade 1; at least 4 weeks must have elapsed since any major surgery; patients with prostate cancer may continue to receive hormonal therapy
  • History of allergic reactions attributed to riluzole or sorafenib
  • Women of child-bearing potential and men must agree to use adequate contraception (hormonal, barrier method of birth control, abstinence) prior to study entry, for the duration of study participation, and for 2 weeks after discontinuation of riluzole and/or sorafenib; should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately; pregnant (positive pregnancy test) or lactating patients cannot participate
  • Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or known history of active hepatitis B or C infection
  • Current, recent (within 4 weeks of the first treatment of this study), or planned participation in an experimental drug study (prevention trials are permitted if the trial is not testing a novel experimental agent)
  • Cardiac disease: congestive heart failure > class II New York Heart Association (NYHA); patients must not have unstable angina (anginal symptoms at rest) or new onset angina (began within the last 3 months) or myocardial infarction within the past 6 months
  • History of stroke within six months
  • Clinically significant peripheral vascular disease
  • Cardiac ventricular arrhythmias requiring anti-arrhythmic therapy
  • Uncontrolled hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure > 150 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mm Hg, despite optimal medical management
  • Active clinically serious infection > Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grade 2
  • Any of the following within 6 months prior to first dose of treatment: myocardial infarction, symptomatic coronary artery disease (severe or unstable angina), artery bypass graft, uncontrolled arrhythmias, symptomatic congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack, or pulmonary embolus
  • Pulmonary hemorrhage/bleeding event >= CTCAE grade 2 within 4 weeks of first-dose of study drug
  • Any other hemorrhage/bleeding event >= CTCAE grade 3 within 4 weeks of first dose of study drug
  • Evidence or history of bleeding diathesis or coagulopathy
  • Major surgery or significant traumatic injury within 4 weeks of first study drug
  • The eligibility of patients taking medications that are potent modulators of cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4 (CYP3A4), cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily B, polypeptide 6 (CYP2B6), subfamily 2, polypeptide 8 (2C8) will be determined following a review of their case by the principal investigator; every effort should be made to switch patients taking such agents or substances to other medications
  • Any condition that impairs the patient's ability to swallow whole pills
  • Any malabsorption problem
  • Anticipation of need for major surgical procedure during the course of the study
  • History of abdominal fistula, gastrointestinal perforation, or intra-abdominal abscess within 6 months prior to day 1 of treatment
  • Serious, non-healing wound, ulcer, or bone fracture
  • Inability to comply with study and/or follow-up procedures
  • Anticoagulation with Lovenox (enoxaparin) is permitted, however, patients on anticoagulation with warfarin are not permitted on this study

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01303341

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United States, New Jersey
Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey
New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States, 08903
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Principal Investigator: Janice M Mehnert Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey
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Responsible Party: National Cancer Institute (NCI)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01303341    
Other Study ID Numbers: NCI-2011-02597
NCI-2011-02597 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
8850 ( Other Identifier: Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey )
8850 ( Other Identifier: CTEP )
P30CA072720 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
R01CA149627 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
U01CA132194 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
UM1CA186716 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: February 24, 2011    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 27, 2023
Last Verified: March 2023
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Skin Neoplasms
Neuroendocrine Tumors
Neuroectodermal Tumors
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue
Nevi and Melanomas
Neoplasms by Site
Skin Diseases
Antineoplastic Agents
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Excitatory Amino Acid Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Neuroprotective Agents
Protective Agents