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Pilot Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Anakinra (Recombinant Human Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist) in Heart Failure

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: February 21, 2011
Last Update Posted: May 16, 2013
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Virginia Commonwealth University
This is an open-label, non-randomized, pilot-study to evaluate the effect of Interleukin-1 blockade on exercise capacity in patients with heart failure. Subjects will undergo cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and after 2-weeks treatment with anakinra (recombinant human Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist).

Condition Intervention Phase
Heart Failure Drug: Anakinra Phase 1 Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Pilot Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Anakinra (Recombinant Human Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist) in Heart Failure

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Virginia Commonwealth University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Median Interval Change From Baseline in Peak VO2 [ Time Frame: 14 days ]

    Peak VO2 is a measurement of oxygen consumption rate during exercise (milliliters of oxygen per minute). It is calculated by continuous measurement of oxygen consumed during exercise while patients breath through a mask/tube. To account for variability in patient size, the oxygen consumption is divided by patient body weight.

    The outcome measure time frame was 14 days. This means that change in peak VO2 was calculated as the difference between peak VO2 at baseline and 14 days. To calculate this change, we used the mathematical process of subtraction (change in peak VO2 = Peak VO2 [day 14] - Peak VO2 [baseline])

  • Median Interval Change From Baseline in the Minute Ventilation and Carbon Dioxide Production (VE/VCO2 Slope) [ Time Frame: 14 days ]

    The VE/VCO2 slope is calculated as the ratio of minute ventilation (VE) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Because these measurements share the same units, the resultant ratio is unitless.

    Change in VE/VCO2 slope was calculated as the change in VE/VCO2 slope between baseline and 14 days. We therefore calculated the difference between VE/VCO2 slope measurements that occurred at baseline and at 14 days (change in VE/VCO2 slope = VE/VCO2 slope [day 14] - VE/VCO2 slope [baseline])

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Interval Change From Baseline in Biomarkers (High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein, Whole Blood Assay, Brain Natriuretic Peptide) [ Time Frame: 14 days ]
  • Interval Change From Baseline in Heart Failure Symptoms as Measured by Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) [ Time Frame: 14 days ]
    The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) is a scale that quantifies patients' ability to perform various tasks. The scale ranges from 0 (unable to perform any tasks) to 58.20 (able to perform all tasks). Higher scores reflect improved activity or improved heart failure symptoms. Lower scores reflect worsened ability or worsened heart failure symptoms.

  • Correlation Between Interval Changes in Biomarkers, Peak VO2, and VE/VCO2 [ Time Frame: 14 days ]
  • Rate of Adverse Events and Hospitalizations [ Time Frame: 14 days ]

Enrollment: 11
Study Start Date: February 2011
Study Completion Date: August 2011
Primary Completion Date: August 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Anakinra Drug: Anakinra
Anakinra 100 mg subcutaneous injection daily


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Confirmed diagnosis of heart failure
  • Recent echocardiogram documenting left ventricular ejection fraction <40%
  • High sensitivity C-reactive protein >2 mg/L.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Recent changes (previous 3 months) in HF maintenance medications (beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, aldosterone antagonists, vasodilators, cardiac glycosides, diuretics)
  • Hospitalization for worsening HF or acute decompensated HF within the previous 12 months
  • Anticipated need for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) or automated-implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD)
  • Angina or electrocardiograph (ECG) changes that limit maximum exertion during cardiopulmonary exercise testing or baseline ECG changes that limit the ability to detect ischemia (i.e. left bundle-branch block).
  • Recent (<14 days) use of anti-inflammatory drugs (not including NSAIDs), chronic inflammatory disorder (including but not limited to rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus), malignancy, active infection, or any comorbidity limiting survival or ability to complete the study
  • Severe kidney dysfunction (eGFR <30 mL/min)
  • Coagulopathy (INR >1.5), thrombocytopenia (<50,000/mm3), or leukopenia (absolute neutrophil count <1,500/mm3)
  • Pregnancy (female patients will be required to take a urine pregnancy test)
  • Latex or rubber allergy
  • Inability to give informed consent
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01300650

United States, Virginia
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, Virginia, United States, 23298
Sponsors and Collaborators
Virginia Commonwealth University
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Principal Investigator: Benjamin W Van Tassell, PharmD Virginia Commonwealth University
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Virginia Commonwealth University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01300650     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: AIR-HF Pilot Study
1KL2RR031989-01 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Submitted: February 17, 2011
First Posted: February 21, 2011
Results First Submitted: December 2, 2011
Results First Posted: May 16, 2013
Last Update Posted: May 16, 2013
Last Verified: April 2013

Keywords provided by Virginia Commonwealth University:
Heart failure
Cardiopulmonary exercise

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Heart Failure
Heart Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
Antirheumatic Agents